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T‐lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system
It is demonstrated that when T‐lymphoblasts are introduced into the circulation they rapidly appear in the CNS tissue, and lymphocytes which have entered, exit within 1 to 2 days.
Perivascular microglial cells of the CNS are bone marrow-derived and present antigen in vivo.
Rat bone marrow chimeras and encephalitogenic, major histocompatability--restricted T-helper lymphocytes were used to show that a subset of endogenous CNS cells, commonly termed "perivascular microglial cells," is bone marrow-derived and are fully competent to present antigen to lymphocytes in an appropriately restricted manner.
Normal adult ramified microglia separated from other central nervous system macrophages by flow cytometric sorting. Phenotypic differences defined and direct ex vivo antigen presentation to myelin…
This is the first study in which microglia vs other CNS macrophages have been analyzed for APC ability directly from the CNS, with substantial cross-contamination between the two populations eliminated.
Basic principles of immunological surveillance of the normal central nervous system
- W. Hickey
- Medicine, BiologyGlia
- 1 November 2001
This review examines the mechanisms and participants in this immunological surveillance mechanism of the central nervous system, and the role in surveillance played by lymphatic drainage, migrating T and B lymphocytes, and elements of the monocyte/macrophage/microglia family are considered.
Central nervous system damage, monocytes and macrophages, and neurological disorders in AIDS.
In the final phases of HIV or SIV infection, this chronic, widespread, and dramatic level of macrophage/monocyte/microglial activation constitutes a self-sustaining state of Macrophage dysregulation, which results in pathological alterations and the emergence of various neurological problems.
Dissociation of microglial activation and neuropathic pain behaviors following peripheral nerve injury in the rat
bcl-2 protein expression is widespread in the developing nervous system and retained in the adult PNS.
The widespread expression of bcl-2 in CNS and PNS neurons during embryonic development and its selective retention in the adult PNS is consistent with a role for bcl -2 in regulating neuronal survival, and the expression in some neuronal populations beyond the recognized period of cell death is suggestive of a roles for bCl-2 beyond simply protecting neurons from developmental cell death.
The Neuropathological and Behavioral Consequences of Intraspinal Microglial/Macrophage Activation
- P. Popovich, Z. Guan, V. McGaughy, L. Fisher, W. Hickey, D. Basso
- BiologyJournal of neuropathology and experimental…
- 1 July 2002
The present data reveal that activation of CNS macrophages in vivo can result in permanent axonal injury and demyelination and can be graded and localized to specific white matter tracts to produce quantifiable behavioral deficits.
Intravenous lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase 2‐like immunoreactivity in rat brain perivascular microglia and meningeal macrophages
It is reported that intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS or endotoxin) induces cyclooxygenase 2‐like immunoreactivity in cells closely associated with brain blood vessels and in cells in the meninges, suggesting that perivascular microglia and meningeal macrophages throughout the brain may be the cellular source of prostaglandins following systemic immune challenge.
The Clinical Course of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Inflammation Is Controlled by the Expression of Cd40 within the Central Nervous System
- B. Becher, B. Durell, Amy V. Miga, W. Hickey, R. Noelle
- Biology, MedicineThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 16 April 2001
Evidence is presented that CD40 functions outside of the systemic immune compartment to amplify organ-specific autoimmunity and that encephalitogenic T cells, which entered a CNS environment in which CD40 was absent from parenchymal microglia, could not elicit the expression of chemokines within the CNS.