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Metagenomic biomarker discovery and explanation
A new method for metagenomic biomarker discovery is described and validates by way of class comparison, tests of biological consistency and effect size estimation to address the challenge of finding organisms, genes, or pathways that consistently explain the differences between two or more microbial communities.
Host microbiota constantly control maturation and function of microglia in the CNS
It is determined that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulated microglia homeostasis and mice deficient for the SCFA receptor FFAR2 mirroredmicroglia defects found under GF conditions, suggesting that host bacteria vitally regulate microglian maturation and function.
The Microbial Metabolites, Short-Chain Fatty Acids, Regulate Colonic Treg Cell Homeostasis
This study determined that short-chain fatty acids, gut microbiota–derived bacterial fermentation products, regulate the size and function of the colonic Treg pool and protect against colitis in a Ffar2-dependent manner in mice, revealing that a class of abundant microbial metabolites underlies adaptive immune microbiota coadaptation and promotes colonic homeostasis and health.
Fusobacterium nucleatum potentiates intestinal tumorigenesis and modulates the tumor-immune microenvironment.
Genomic analysis identifies association of Fusobacterium with colorectal carcinoma.
The composition of the microbiota in colorectal carcinoma is characterized using whole genome sequences from nine tumor/normal pairs and Fusobacterium sequences were enriched in carcinomas, confirmed by quantitative PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of 95 carcinoma/normal DNA pairs.
A single-cell survey of the small intestinal epithelium
Intestinal epithelial cells absorb nutrients, respond to microbes, function as a barrier and help to coordinate immune responses. Here we report profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from…
Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut
It is shown that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection and are identified as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites.
Activation of Lysosomal Function During Dendritic Cell Maturation
Lysosomal function in DCs appears to be specialized for the developmentally regulated processing of internalized antigens in the formation of peptide–MHC class II complexes.
Developmental Control of Endocytosis in Dendritic Cells by Cdc42
Gut microbiota, metabolites and host immunity
Technological and computational approaches for investigating the microbiome, as well as recent advances in the understanding of host immunity and microbial mutualism are discussed with a focus on specific microbial metabolites, bacterial components and the immune system.