Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine.
This paper summarizes a century of scientific exploration on the (patho)physiological role of carnosine and related compounds, and concludes that far more experiments are required to gain a full understanding of the function and applications of this intriguing molecule.
beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters.
Proton MRS can be used to noninvasively quantify human muscle Carnosine content and muscle carnosine is increased by oral beta-alanine supplementation in sprint-trained athletes; carnosinesine loading slightly but significantly attenuated fatigue in repeated bouts of exhaustive dynamic contractions; and the increase in muscle Carnival did not improve isometric endurance or 400-m race time.
Mouth rinse but not ingestion of a carbohydrate solution improves 1‐h cycle time trial performance
- A. Pottier, J. Bouckaert, W. Gilis, T. Roels, W. Derave
- Medicine, PsychologyScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in…
- 1 February 2010
It is found that rinsing the mouth with but not ingestion of CES resulted in improved performance, and blood glucose concentration increased after ingestion of but not after mouth rinse with CES.
Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.
- A. Baguet, J. Bourgois, Lander Vanhee, E. Achten, W. Derave
- BiologyJournal of applied physiology
- 1 October 2010
It can be concluded that the positive correlation between baseline muscle carnosine levels and rowing performance and thepositive correlation between changes in muscle Carnosine and performance improvement suggest that muscle carnOSine is a new determinant of roowing performance.
A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking
Measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking, demonstrating that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions.
Carnosine loading and washout in human skeletal muscles.
It can be concluded that carnosine is a stable compound in human skeletal muscle, confirming the absence of carnosinase in myocytes, and shows that washout periods for crossover designs in supplementation studies for muscle metabolites may sometimes require months rather than weeks.
Physical Fitness in Morbidly Obese Patients: Effect of Gastric Bypass Surgery and Exercise Training
An exercise training program in the first 4 months after bariatric surgery is effective and should be promoted, considering the fact that physical fitness does not improve by weight loss only.
Human sarcopenia reveals an increase in SOCS-3 and myostatin and a reduced efficiency of Akt phosphorylation.
This study investigated the regulation of several genes and proteins involved in the activation of key signaling pathways promoting muscle hypertrophy, including GH/STAT5, IGF-1/Akt/GSK-3beta/4E-BP1, and muscle atrophy, in muscle biopsies from 13 young and older males.
Glucose, exercise and insulin: emerging concepts
It is concluded that both during and following muscle contractions, glycogen emerges as an important modulator of signalling events in glucose metabolism.
Exercise in the fasted state facilitates fibre type‐specific intramyocellular lipid breakdown and stimulates glycogen resynthesis in humans
It is concluded that IMTG breakdown during prolonged submaximal exercise in the fasted state takes place predominantly in type I fibres and that this breakdown is prevented in the CHO‐fed state.