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Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7-36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus.
In mild type-2 diabetes, GLP-1 [7-36 amide], in contrast to GIP, retains much of its insulinotropic activity and lowers glucagon concentrations.
Reduced incretin effect in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes
Integrated incremental immunoreactive insulin and connecting peptide responses to an oral glucose load and an “isoglycaemic” intravenous glucose infusion, respectively, were measured in 14 Type 2 diabetic patients and 8 age- and weight-matched metabolically healthy control subjects.
Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses.
A discrepancy between the estimates of the incretin effect derived from peripheral venous insulin responses, and C-peptide responses or calculated insulin secretion rates, exists, which suggests that elimination kinetics of insulin differ between oral and iv glucose administration.
Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36 amide) in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients
Exogenous GLP-1 (7-36 amide) is an effective means of normalizing fasting plasma glucose concentrations in poorly-controlled Type 2 diabetic patients.
Additive insulinotropic effects of exogenous synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide infused at near-physiological insulinotropic hormone and glucose
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) are glucose-dependent insulinotropic gut hormones that may explain the greater insulin secretory response with
The incretin concept today
GIP, although important, is not the onlyincretin, and an exaggerated GIP response (usually secondary to the disease) may participate in the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinaemia of patients with obesity and duodenal ulcer.
Glucagonostatic Actions and Reduction of Fasting Hyperglycemia by Exogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide I(7–36) amide in type I diabetic patients
Exogenous GLP-1 is able to lower fasting glycemia also in type I diabetic patients, mainly by reducing glucagon concentrations, however, this alone is not sufficient to normalize fasting plasma glucose concentrations, as was previously observed in type II diabetic patients.
Gut hormones and diabetes mellitus.
Somatostatin analogue octreotide and inhibition of tumour growth in metastatic endocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours.
The results suggest that octreotide inhibits tumour growth in patients with metastasised endocrine GEP tumours and the antiproliferative effect is, at least in some patients, longlasting.
Histopathological classification of nonantral gastric endocrine growths in man.
A definition of nonantral gastric endocrine hyperplasia, dysplasia (enlarging or fusing micronodules, microinvasion, nodular growth) and neoplasia (intramucosal carcinoid, invasive carcinoid) is presented.