Innate immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana: lipopolysaccharides activate nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and induce defense genes.
- Dana Zeidler, U. Zähringer, J. Durner
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 2 November 2004
It is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana reacts to LPS with a rapid burst of NO, a hallmark of innate immunity in animals and contributes toward the activation of plant defense responses.
Flavonoids as antioxidants: determination of radical-scavenging efficiencies.
Polyamines as radical scavengers and protectants against ozone damage
Inhibition of the bleaching of the carotenoid crocin a rapid test for quantifying antioxidant activity
Chemistry of the Antioxidant Effect of Polyphenols
With pulse radiolysis experiments, absolute scavenging rate constants can be obtained with a variety of oxidizing radicals which allow further structure‐activity correlations and, combined with EPR spectroscopy, detailed insight into the mechanisms governing these antioxidant reactions.
Antioxidant capacity of flavanols and gallate esters: pulse radiolysis studies.
Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of radical species of proanthocyanidins and gallate esters.
It is proposed that proanthocyanidins are superior antioxidants as compared to flavon(ol)s proper, whose quinones are more likely to redox-cycle and act as prooxidants.
The kinetics and thermodynamics of quinone–semiquinone–hydroquinone systems under physiological conditions
The steady-state concentration of semiquinones (Q˙–) determined by EPR in the mixtures of eleven alkyl-, methoxy- and chloro-substituted 1,4-benzoquinones as well as 1,4-naphthoquinone (Q) with…
Radical chemistry of flavonoid antioxidants.
Flavonoid aglycones, members of an ubiquitous class of plant phenols, have often been proposed to act as antioxidants, but only qualitative conclusions could be drawn.
Studies on radical intermediates in the early stage of the nonenzymatic browning reaction of carbohydrates and amino acids.
- T. Hofmann, W. Bors, K. Stettmaier
- ChemistryJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- 22 January 1999
Determination of the color intensity of heated mixtures of L-alanine and carbohydrate degradation products revealed furan-2-carboxaldehyde and glycolaldehyde as by far the most effective color precursors and pyrazinium radicals cations are not stable but are easily transformed into hydroxylated 1,4-dialkyl-1, 4-dihydropyrazines upon oxidation and hydrolysis of intermediate diquarternary pyrazine ions.