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Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth
This empirical work supports long-standing theory about the role of top-down forcing in ecosystems but also highlights the unanticipated impacts of trophic cascades on processes as diverse as the dynamics of disease, wildfire, carbon sequestration, invasive species, and biogeochemical cycles. Expand
Fire as a global 'herbivore': the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems.
The recent literature is reviewed, drawing parallels between fire and herbivores as alternative consumers of vegetation, and pointing to the common questions and some surprisingly different answers that emerge from viewing fire as a globally significant consumer that is analogous to herbivory. Expand
Fire, resprouting and variability: a recipe for grass–tree coexistence in savanna
Understanding grass–tree interactions in savanna requires consideration of the long-term effects of life history–disturbance interactions on demography, rather than the fine-scale effects of resource competition on physiological performance. Expand
What Limits Trees in C4 Grasslands and Savannas
The extent of this climate mismatch has been revealed by physiologically based global vegetation simulations and by large empirical data sets, and the implication is that ecosystem structure and function depend on demographic transitions. Expand
Challenges in the Quest for Keystones
Mary E. Power is a professor in the Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. David Tilman is a professor in the Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior,Expand
TRY – a global database of plant traits
The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in Earth system models. Expand
The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire.
Comparison of global 'fire off' simulations with landcover and treecover maps show that vast areas of humid C(4) grasslands and savannas, especially in South America and Africa, have the climate potential to form forests. Expand
Do mutualisms matter? Assessing the impact of pollinator and disperser disruption on plant extinction
Analysis of case studies suggests that plants often compensate for high risk in one of the three categories by low risk in another, and some systems, including elements of the Cape flora and lowland tropical rain forest, lack compensatory traits and the risk of plant extinction from failed mutualism is high. Expand
Fire in Mediterranean Ecosystems: Ecology, Evolution and Management
Part I. Introduction: 1. Mediterranean-type climate (MTC) ecosystems and fire 2. Fire and the fire regime framework 3. Fire related plant traits Part II. Regional Patterns: 4. Fire in theExpand
Savanna ecosystems are characterized by the co-occurrence of trees and grass- es. In this paper, we argue that the balance between trees and grasses is, to a large extent, determined by the indirectExpand