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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypes for the pharmaceutically important family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Here we present atomic resolution structures of nicotine and carbamylcholine binding to AChBP, a water-soluble homolog of the ligand binding domain of nicotinic receptors and their family members, GABAA, GABAC, 5HT3 serotonin,(More)
Ubiquitin-dependent signaling during the DNA damage response (DDR) to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is initiated by two E3 ligases, RNF8 and RNF168, targeting histone H2A and H2AX. RNF8 is the first ligase recruited to the damage site, and RNF168 follows RNF8-dependent ubiquitination. This suggests that RNF8 initiates H2A/H2AX ubiquitination with K63-linked(More)
The aim of this review is to summarize the research efforts of the last two decades with respect to (i) the determination and characterization of the changes in glycosylation of AGP under various physiological and pathological states; and (ii) the effects of such changes on its possible anti-inflammatory functions. It will become clear that the(More)
Moderately increased plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein, its relation to a low degree of inflammatory activation and its association with activation of the endothelium have not been systematically investigated in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.(More)
1-Acid glycoprotein (AGP) is a major acute-phase protein present in human plasma as well as in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). In this report, we show that PMN synthesize a specific glycoform of AGP, which is stored in the specific and azurophilic granules. Activation of PMN results in the rapid release of soluble AGP. PMN AGP exhibits a substantially(More)
Acute and chronic inflammation-induced expression of sialyl Lewisx has already been shown to occur on α1-acid glycoprotein. We now demonstrate that this phenomenon is not restricted to α1-acid glycoprotein but also occurs on two other acute-phase proteins. ie on α-antichymotrypsin and on haptoglobin. The level of expression of sialyl Lewisx on these(More)
During the course of an inflammatory response, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor(TNF ) triggers endothelial cells to increase the expression levels of adhesion molecules that are pivotal for the rolling, adhesion, and transmigration of leukocytes over the endothelial cell wall. Here we show that TNF , in addition, has a regulatory function(More)
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in agriculture. In recent years 15–18 Mt of P was used as mineral fertilizer in the global food production chain. The major source of this fertilizer is phosphate rock which is unfortunately a finite resource. In the long term this necessitates efficient use of fertilizer and optimized recycling of P rich waste(More)
Regulation of gene expression at the level of mRNA stability is a major topic of research; however, knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms affecting the binding and function of AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins (AUBPs) in response to extracellular signals is minimal. The 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 ( 4GalT1) gene enabled us to study the mechanisms(More)
Humanα 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) has been shown to modulate various cellular and humoral immune reactions in vitro. Using glycosidase-modified derivatives of AGP, the importance of its carbohydrate moiety with regard to these effects has been noted. In normal serum, three molecular AGP forms interacting differently with concanavalin A (Con A) are present.(More)