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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) often store more than one neurotransmitter, but as yet the functional significance of this type of coexistence is poorly understood. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) responsible for the postspike afterhyperpolarization in different regions of the CNS. In lamprey, 5-HT(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment-resistant depression is a significant public health concern; drug switching or augmentation often produce limited results. The authors hypothesized that fluoxetine could be augmented with olanzapine to successfully treat resistant depression. METHOD An 8-week double-blind study was conducted with 28 patients who were diagnosed with(More)
Activation of NMDA receptors evokes sustained fictive locomotion in the isolated spinal cord of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (P. marinus), but in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (L. fluviatilis) the ventral root activity is often irregular. A previous study showed that the number of 5-HT immunoreactive fibres, neurones and varicosities are much(More)
Tachykinin immunoreactivity is found in a ventromedial spinal plexus in the lamprey. Neurons in this plexus project bilaterally and are thus in a position to modulate locomotor networks on both sides of the spinal cord. We have examined the effects of the tachykinin substance P on NMDA-evoked locomotor activity. Brief (10 min) application of tachykinin(More)
In this marker evaluation study, we tested whether distinct patterns of functional genomic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolic pathways and DNA repair that predict clinical outcome to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/oxaliplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer could be identified. Functional polymorphisms in DNA-repair genes XPD,(More)
The respiratory rhythm is generated and regulated by a neuronal network within the lower brainstem. While the neuronal mechanisms of rhythm generation have been extensively investigated, the contribution of glial cells remains to be determined. Here we report the effect of specific blockade of the glial Krebs cycle and glutamine synthetase on the neuronal(More)
The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have(More)
T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement activates multiple protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), including the Src family member, Lck, and the Syk-related PTK, ZAP-70. Studies in ZAP-70-deficient humans have demonstrated that ZAP-70 plays crucial roles in T-cell activation and development. However, progress toward a detailed understanding of the regulation and(More)
The glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has antidepressant-like properties. However, the functional role of leptin receptor (Lepr) signaling in glutamatergic neurons remains to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional(More)