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[1] To assess the current status of climate models in simulating clouds, basic cloud climatologies from ten atmospheric general circulation models are compared with satellite measurements from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. An ISCCP simulator is employed in all(More)
The connectivity pattern of the laminar, principal, and magnocellular nuclei of the frog torus semicircularis (TS) was investigated. A small amount of horseradish peroxidase was injected focally into individual divisions of the TS and anterograde and retrograde transport patterns were observed. Results of our tracing study showed that these divisions of the(More)
Most anurans are highly vocal but their vocalizations are stereotyped and simple with limited repertoire sizes compared with other vocal vertebrates, presumably because of the limited mechanisms for fine vocal motor control. We recently reported that the call of the concaveeared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus Fei) is an exception in its seemingly endless(More)
Previous studies in the inferior colliculus have shown that spatial separation of signal and noise sources improves signal detection. In this study, we investigated the free-field unmasking response properties of single fibers in the auditory nerve--these were compared to those of inferior colliculus neurons under the same experimental conditions to test(More)
Physiological studies were carried out in the frog (Rana pipiens pipiens) eighth nerve to determine: (i) whether the modulation rate or the silent gap was the salient feature that set the upper limit of time-locking to pulsed amplitude-modulated (PAM) stimuli, (ii) the gap detection capacity of individual eighth nerve fibers. Time-locked responses of 79(More)
The neuronal architecture of the dorsal nucleus of the Northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens pipiens), which is a homolog of the cochlear nucleus of mammals and birds, was investigated. Our study showed that the frog dorsal nucleus contains a number of morphologically distinct cell types that are discernible in terms of the cellular architecture as derived(More)
Real-world listening situations comprise multiple auditory objects. Sounds originating from different objects are summated at the eardrum. The auditory system therefore must segregate the streams of sounds associated with the different objects. One listening strategy in complex environments is to attend to signals originating from one spatial location. In(More)
Responses of auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis (TS) of Pleurodema thaul, a leptodactylid from Chile, to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal patterns and to digitized advertisement calls of P. thaul and three sympatric species, were recorded to investigate their temporal response selectivities. The advertisement call of this species consists(More)
1. We made extracellular recordings from 164 single neurons in the frog dorsal medullary nucleus (DMN), a homologue of the cochlear nucleus. Phase-locked responses to tones at the unit's characteristic frequency (CF) and to off-CF tones were evaluated. We also stimulated units with tones at CF that were amplitude modulated sinusoidally between 5 and 1,000(More)