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[1] This paper compares seasonal and spatial variations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedos with those from the Common Land Model (CLM) by land cover type. MODIS albedo data in the year 2001 were used to determine seasonal, spatial, and land cover dependence at 1 km resolution and to investigate the biases in CLM. Albedo(More)
[1] This paper compares by land cover type seasonal and spatial variations of MODIS leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (0.4–0.7 mm) absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from 2.5 years with those from the Common Land Model (CLM) and investigates possible reasons for notable differences. The FPAR value is mainly determined by(More)
Product unit neural networks with exponential weights (PUNNs) can provide more powerful internal representation capability than traditional feed-forward neural networks. In this paper, a convergence result of the back-propagation (BP) algorithm for training PUNNs is presented. The monotonicity of the error function in the training iteration process is also(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in Western countries have repeatedly shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in China? METHOD Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women:(More)
BACKGROUND The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome? METHOD Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent(More)
First the surface-potential-based compact MOS model, PSP, is introduced. After a discussion of the general advantages of this model, it is benchmarked against measurements from the 45 nm technology node. Finally, we zoom in on the modeling in PSP of two effects that are of special importance for RF applications: distortion and noise.
The paper presents a DEM model for simulating dry granular avalanche down an incline. Flow pattern and impact forces on rigid obstacles are considered. Results of the simulations are compared with experimental data reported in the literature. The experiments include granular flow along an inclined channel and three-dimensional free surface flow on an(More)