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A quantitative study of the ultrastructural changes occurring at degenerating motor axon terminals of the mouse hemidiaphragm in the first 26 h following unilateral phrenicotomy has been made. Several ultrastructural characteristics of axon terminals from normal diaphragms and phrenicotomized and control hemidiaphragms of phrenicotomized preparations were(More)
The mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis, has been used as a model to study the mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent processes in the CNS. Putative NO-containing neurones in Lymnaea are localized in the buccal ganglia, predominantly in areas where sensory neurones known to regulate feeding are found. The NO-generating substance, S-nitrosocysteine (S-NC, 5 x(More)
1. The morphology and electrophysiology of a newly identified bilateral pair of interneurones in the central nervous system of the pulmonate pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is described. 2. These interneurones, identified as left and right pedal dorsal 11 (L/RPeD11), are electrically coupled to each other as well as to a large number of foot and body wall(More)
The presence and distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the CNS and peripheral organs (buccal muscles, oesophagus, salivary glands, foot, mantle and pneumostome) of the pulmonate mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis were studied using an antiserum developed against rat cerebellar NOS. NOS-immunopositive neurones in Lymnaea were localized predominantly in the(More)
The morphology of identified neurons and of one multiaction interneuron (L10) of the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia has been studied using cobalt chloride, injected intracellularly. Cells with little synaptic input, R3-R14, had a relatively poorly developed dendritic tree, whereas the dendrite tree of cells L7 and L10, with extensive synaptic input, was(More)
A quantitative study of the functional changes occurring at end-plates of phrenicotomised mouse hemidiaphragms was made. Analysis of the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release revealed large scale deviations from a Poisson based process commencing 6-7 h post-phrenicotomy. Short term bursts of miniature end-plate potentials (minEPPs) lasting 0.5-1.0(More)
During prolonged exposure to extracellular 4-aminopyridine (4 AP) the periodic activity of the somatic membrane of an identified molluscan neurone passes from a repetitive regular discharge of greater than 90 mV amplitude action potentials, through double discharges to less than 50 mV amplitude oscillations. Return to standard saline causes the growth of(More)
1. A morphological and electrophysiological map of the identifiable neurones and neuronal clusters of the paired pedal ganglia has been prepared. 2. Neuronal morphology was investigated using the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow CH, whilst electrophysiological properties were studied using conventional intracellular recording techniques and the phase plane(More)
We have recently described the respiratory behavior of a pulmonate mollusc, Lymnaea stagnalis, and identified relevant motor neurons and interneurons involved in this behavior. Three interneurons, namely right pedal dorsal 1 (R.Pe.D1), visceral dorsal 4 (V.D4) and Input 3 interneuron (Ip.3.I) comprise the central pattern generator (CPG). We demonstrate that(More)
The aminergic innervation of the foot of Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated using electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and HPLC. The foot was found to contain large amounts of serotonin and dopamine, though at lower concentrations than are found in nervous tissue. Serotonin containing tissue was concentrated in the ventral surface of the foot, under(More)