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Interleukin-10 (IL-10) affects the growth and differentiation of many hemopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it is a potent suppressor of macrophage and T cell functions. In IL-10-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting, lymphocyte development and antibody responses are normal, but most animals are growth retarded and anemic and suffer from chronic(More)
A role for alpha4 integrins in different forms of the multiple sclerosis-like disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been demonstrated, but the individual contributions of alpha4beta1, alpha4beta7, and the related alphaEbeta7 integrin have not been determined. The P7 integrins alpha4beta7 and alphaEbeta7 play a central role in chronic(More)
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) promotes the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it directs the immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch to IgG1 and IgE. Mice homozygous for a mutation that inactivates the IL-4 gene were generated to test the requirement for IL-4 in vivo. In the mutant mice T and B cell development was normal, but(More)
The binding of cytokines to the gp130 receptor activates the STAT3, MEK/MAPK, and PI3K/Akt signalling pathways. To assess the relative importance of these pathways in promoting the survival of cytokine-dependent neurons, we conditionally inactivated STAT3 in mice and inhibited MEK, PI3K, and Akt in cultured neurons using pharmacological reagents and by(More)
CD5 is a transmembrane protein that is expressed on the surface of T cells and a subset of B cells. The absence of CD5 rendered thymocytes hyperresponsive to stimulation through the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) in vitro. Selection of T cells expressing three distinct transgenic TCRs was also abnormal in CD5-deficient mice. These observations indicate that(More)
Using amplified cDNA and genomic libraries, we have analyzed the VH gene repertoire of pre-B cells and various B cell subsets of conventional mice at the level of VH genes belonging to the J558 VH gene family. The sequence data were evaluated on the basis of a newly established list of 67 J558 VH genes that comprise approximately two-thirds of the J558 VH(More)
BACKGROUND The bacteriophage-derived Cre-loxP recombination system operates efficiently in mammalian cells. This system is particularly useful in gene-targeting experiments in the mouse, and has already been used to generate 'clean' deletions of target genes in the germ line, as well as to inactivate target genes in a conditional manner (based on regulated(More)
Immune defence against pathogens entering the gut is accomplished by lymphocytes in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a major compartment of the immune system. The GALT, comprising Peyer's patches, lamina propria lymphocytes and intra-epithelial lymphocytes of the intestine, is populated by lymphocytes that migrate there from the vasculature. Here(More)
The lambda 5 gene is a homolog of immunoglobulin J lambda-C lambda genes, expressed specifically in immature B-lineage cells. Lambda 5-encoded molecules form membrane complexes with mu or D mu proteins in association with an additional protein specifically expressed in immature B cells that is encoded by the Vpre-B gene. We have generated mice in which the(More)
The compartment of mouse B cell progenitors can be resolved into five developmentally related fractions by multicolor flow cytometry. Using this system and employing mutant mice in which the membrane exon of the mu chain, the lambda 5 gene, or the JH locus was inactivated by gene targeting, we found that expression of the pre-B cell receptor complex is(More)