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Inhalation of butter flavoring vapors by food manufacturing workers causes an emerging lung disease clinically resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Diacetyl, an alpha-diketone, is a major component of these vapors. In rats, we investigated the toxicity of inhaled diacetyl at concentrations of up to 365 ppm (time weighted average), either as six-hour(More)
Nanoscale CeO₂ is increasingly used for industrial and commercial applications, including catalysis, UV-shielding and as an additive in various nanocomposites. Because of its increasing potential for consumer and occupational exposures, a comprehensive toxicological characterisation of this nanomaterial is needed. Preliminary results from intratracheal(More)
Respiratory effects observed in welders have included lung function changes, metal fume fever, bronchitis, and a possible increase in the incidence of lung cancer. Many questions remain unanswered regarding the causality and possible underlying mechanisms associated with the potential toxic effects of welding fume inhalation. The objective of the present(More)
As the result of a high prevalence of fixed airways obstruction in workers at a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant, we examined the hypothesis that vapors of butter flavoring used in the manufacture of microwave popcorn and other foods can produce airway injury in rats. Rats were exposed to vapors liberated from heated butter flavoring. Rats were exposed(More)
Consequent to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, there is an emergent concern about the short- and long-term adverse health effects of exposure to crude oil, weathered-oil products, and oil dispersants among the workforce employed to contain and clean up the spill. Oil dispersants typically comprise of a mixture of solvents and(More)
Patients with influenza release aerosol particles containing the virus into their environment. However, the importance of airborne transmission in the spread of influenza is unclear, in part because of a lack of information about the infectivity of the airborne virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of viable influenza A virus that was(More)
BACKGROUND Involuntary cough is a classic symptom of many respiratory diseases. The act of coughing serves a variety of functions such as clearing the airways in response to respiratory irritants or aspiration of foreign materials. It has been pointed out that a cough results in substantial stresses on the body which makes voluntary cough a useful tool in(More)
COREXIT EC9500A (COREXIT) was used to disperse crude oil during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. While the environmental impact of COREXIT has been examined, the pulmonary effects are unknown. Investigations were undertaken to determine whether inhaled COREXIT elicits airway inflammation, alters pulmonary function or airway reactivity, or exerts(More)
Cough is considered an early sign of many respiratory diseases. Recently, there has been increased interest in measuring, analyzing, and characterizing the acoustical properties of a cough. In most cases the main focus of those studies was to distinguish between involuntary coughs and ambient sounds over a specified time period. The objective of this study(More)
Ozone (O(3)) is toxic to respiratory epithelium and causes airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. To evaluate the role of the epithelium in the development of hyperreactivity, we examined in guinea pigs the effects of inhaled O(3) (3 ppm for 1 h; 0-24 h after exposure) on 1) reactivity to inhaled methacholine (MCh), 2) reactivity of the isolated, perfused(More)