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This study investigated the effects of navigation speed on the level of motion sickness during and after a 30-min head-steered virtual environment. Root-mean-squares for 8 speeds in the fore-and-aft axis were 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 30, and 59 m/s. Participants were 96 Chinese men. Both the nausea and vection ratings increased significantly with speeds(More)
The objective of this paper is to introduce an application of multi-sensory cognitive learning theory into the development of a multimedia tutorial for Item Response Theory. The cognitive multimedia theory suggests that the visual and auditory material should be presented simultaneously to reinforce the retention of learned materials. A computer-assisted(More)
The spatial distribution patterns of fish larvae and the relationships with hydrographic conditions in the waters surrounding Taiwan were studied in August 2004 when the south-westerly monsoon prevailed. A total of 6566 fish larvae were identified, belonging to 80 families, 129 genera and 230 species. Cluster analysis revealed two station groups, one(More)
The effects of increasing CO2 concentrations and temperature on microalgal assemblages were examined in Taiwan using mesocosms that simulate coral reef ecosystem. We assessed changes in abundance and diversity of benthic algae grown at 25°C and 28°C, under ambient (~400μatm) and at high CO2 conditions (800-1000μatm). Total alkalinity, pCO2, and the(More)
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