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Debates around health systems have dominated the international health agenda for several decades. A wealth of contributions has been made to define, describe and explain health systems through multiple conceptual frameworks proposed to date. The array of health systems frameworks arguably provides an opportunity for identifying different appropriate(More)
How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite widespread use of antibiotics for the treatment of life-threatening infections and for research on the role of commensal microbiota, our understanding of their effects on the host is still very limited. DESIGN Using a popular mouse model of microbiota depletion by a cocktail of antibiotics, we analysed the effects of antibiotics by(More)
The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to further debate. This primer aims to provide IMF macroeconomists with the essential information they need to address(More)
This series is produced by the Health, Nutrition, and Population Family (HNP) of the World Bank's Human Development Network. The papers in this series aim to provide a vehicle for publishing preliminary and unpolished results on HNP topics to encourage discussion and debate. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely(More)
Acknowledgement At the very outset, we would like to thank our SYPA advisor Matt Andrews who mentored us not only through his creative and analytical ideas, but also for being our friend, philosopher and guide throughout the project. We are grateful to Ishac Diwan for his challenging questions that helped us think outside the box. Jane Nelson for their(More)
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