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Recent advances in understanding the molecular genetics of common adult tumors have indicated that multiple genetic alterations including the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are important in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Loss of heterozygosity is a hallmark of tumor suppressor gene inactivation and has been used to(More)
Mammalian sperm DNA is the most tightly compacted eukaryotic DNA, being at least sixfold more highly condensed than the DNA in mitotic chromosomes. To achieve this high degree of packaging, sperm DNA interacts with protamines to form linear, side-by-side arrays of chromatin. This differs markedly from the bulkier DNA packaging of somatic cell nuclei and(More)
We mapped the positions of three different genes in the flat, hook-shaped hamster sperm nucleus to determine the specificity of sperm DNA positioning. The positions of the 5S rRNA gene cluster, the CAD gene, and the class I 1.6 gene were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in over 50 hamster sperm nuclei for each gene. We first(More)
In this review, we present our recent evidence suggesting, but not yet proving, that mammalian spermatozoa contain a mechanism by which they can digest their own DNA when exposed to a stressful environment. We discuss our recent data that demonstrate that when mammalian spermatozoa are treated in a variety of ways, the paternal chromosomes in the zygote, or(More)
In the four decades since the discovery of the basic structure of the DNA double helix, researchers have been investigating the more dynamic tertiary structures that DNA assumes in the various forms of chromatin. The tertiary structure of DNA is important because it is directly related to the function of the genome: for the cell to access the information(More)
In eukaryotes, DNA synthesis is preceded by licensing of replication origins. We examined the subcellular localization of two licensing proteins, ORC2 and MCM7, in the mouse zygotes and two-cell embryos. In somatic cells ORC2 remains bound to DNA replication origins throughout the cell cycle, while MCM7 is one of the last proteins to bind to the licensing(More)
We previously demonstrated that mammalian spermatozoa contain a nuclease activity that cleaves DNA into loop-sized fragments. We show here that this activity is mediated by a nuclear matrix-associated topoisomerase IIB (TOP2B) interacting with an extracellular Mn2+/Ca2+-dependent nuclease. Together, these enzymes cleave all of the DNA into fragments of 50(More)
We have demonstrated that mouse spermatozoa can cleave their DNA into 50-kb fragments when treated with Triton X-100, MnCl(2), and CaCl(2). This cleavage, which is termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF), is mediated by topoisomerase IIB (TOP2B) following stimulation by a factor in the epididymal fluid, most likely a nuclease, and can be at least(More)
We demonstrated that mouse spermatozoa cleave their DNA into approximately 50 kb loop-sized fragments with topoisomerase IIB when treated with MnCl(2) and CaCl(2) in a process we term sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF can be reversed by EDTA. A nuclease then further degrades the DNA in a process we term sperm DNA degradation (SDD). MnCl(2) alone(More)
We recently demonstrated that mouse spermatozoa contain a mechanism to degrade their DNA into loop-sized fragments of about 50 kb, mediated by topoisomerase IIB, termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF is often followed by a more complete digestion of the DNA with a sperm nuclease. When SCF-induced spermatozoa are injected into oocytes, the paternal(More)