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A series of achiral hypoxia-activated prodrugs were synthesized on the basis of the DNA cross-linking toxin of the prodrug, ifosfamide. The hypoxia-selective cytotoxicity of several of the compounds was improved over previously reported racemic mixtures of chiral bioreductive phosphoramidate prodrugs. Prodrugs activated by 2-nitroimidazole reduction(More)
Background activity of spinoreticular tract neurons in the T1-T4 segments was on average inhibited 80% by electrical stimulation of nucleus raphe magnus. Nucleus raphe magnus stimulation inhibited responses of spinoreticular tract neurons to somatic input produced by touching the skin and hair (innocuous stimulus) or pinching the skin and muscle (noxious(More)
PURPOSE Tumor hypoxia underlies treatment failure and yields a more aggressive, invasive, and metastatic cancer phenotype. TH-302 is a 2-nitroimidazole triggered hypoxia-activated prodrug of the cytotoxin bromo-isophosphoramide mustard (Br-IPM). The purpose of this study is to characterize the antitumor activity of TH-302 and investigate its selective(More)
Spinothalamic and spinoreticular neurons in the C8-T5 spinal segments were examined for responsiveness to occlusion of the left main, left circumflex (CX), or left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in monkeys and cats. Four types of cell response to occlusion were observed, as follows: 1) cell activity increased (6 responses) or decreased (1(More)
Studies of renal afferent fibers and their functions have continued since the work of Pines in 1959 (Fiziol. Zh. SSSR Im. I M Sechenova 45: 1339-1347, 1959). The kidney contains mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors that appear to have two major functions. First, renal mechano- and chemoreceptors evoke a variety of renorenal reflexes, while more global(More)
Spinothalamic tract neurons projecting to medial thalamus (M-STT cells), ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus (L-STT cells), or both thalamic regions (LM-STT cells) were studied in 19 monkeys anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Twenty-seven M-STT cells were antidromically activated from nucleus centralis lateralis, nucleus centrum(More)
Spinothalamic (ST) neurons in the C8-T5 segments of the spinal cord were examined for responses to electrical stimulation of the left thoracic vagus nerve (LTV). Seventy-one ST neurons were studied in 39 anesthetized monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Each neuron could be excited by manipulation of its somatic field and by electrical stimulation of(More)
Effects of stimulating the left thoracic vagus nerve on the responses of spinothalamic neurons to electrical stimulation of cardiopulmonary sympathetic afferent fibers and to intracardiac injections of bradykinin were determined. Experiments were performed on 39 monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) tranquilized with ketamine and anesthetized with alpha-chloralose.(More)