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A literature review reveals many lines of evidence that both delayed rectifier and inward rectifier potassium channels are multi-ion pores. These include unidirectional flux ratios given by the 2--2.5 power of the electrochemical activity ratio, very steeply voltage-dependent block with monovalent blocking ions, relief of block by permeant ions added to the(More)
To investigate the voltage dependence of the Na+/K+ pump, current-voltage relations were determined in prophase-arrested oocytes of Xenopus laevis. All solutions contained 5 mM Ba2+ and 20 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) to block K+ channels. If, in addition, the Na+/K+ pump is blocked by ouabain, K(+)-sensitive currents no larger than 50 nA/cm2 remain.(More)
The function of GAT1, the transporter for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, is characterized by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and measurements of GABA-induced uptake of [3H]GABA, 22Na+, and 36Cl-, and GABA-evoked currents under voltage-clamp conditions. N-[4,4-Diphenyl-3-butenyl]-nipecotic acid (SKF-89976-A), a specific inhibitor of GAT1, is used(More)
Sodium currents were studied under voltage clamp in the presence of neutral, amine, and quaternary local anesthetic compounds. Use-dependent block was observed as a cumulative depression of INa seen with repetitive depolarizing test pulses applied at frequencies of 2-10s-1. With quaternary QX-314, the time constant of use dependence was long, and with(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the beta subunit of the Na+ pump is essential for the alpha subunit to express catalytic activity and for assembly of the holoenzyme in the plasma membrane. We report here that injection into Xenopus laevis oocytes of cRNAs specific for beta 1 subunit isoforms of the Na+ pump of four species (Torpedo californica, chicken, mouse(More)
In Na(+)- and K(+)-free solution, an inward-directed current can be detected in Xenopus oocytes, which is inhibited by cardiac glycosides and activated by ATP. Therefore, it is assumed to be generated by the Na+,K+ pump. At negative membrane potentials, the pump current increases with more negative potentials and with increasing [H+] in the external medium.(More)
Application of Ca2+ to the inner surface of red-cell membranes activates unitary currents that can be measured in cell-attached and cell-free membrane patches. Ca2+ can be replaced by Pb2+ to activate the single channels. In addition to internal Ca2+ external K+ has to be present. The channels are preferentially permeable to K+ with a selectivity ratio(More)
To study an endocytotic role of the GTP-binding protein RhoA in Xenopus oocytes, we have monitored changes in the surface expression of sodium pumps, the surface area of the oocyte and the uptake of the fluid-phase marker inulin. Xenopus oocytes possess intracellular sodium pumps that are continuously exchanged for surface sodium pumps by constitutive endo-(More)
Wild-type and mutants with alpha-subunits truncated at the N terminus of Na+/K+ pumps of Torpedo electroplax were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injection of cRNAs encoding for one of the alpha-subunits and for the beta-subunit. Currents generated by the pump were investigated under voltage clamp in Na(+)-free solution, a condition where stimulation by(More)
1. We have expressed the GABA transporter (GAT1) of mouse brain in Xenopus oocytes and have investigated the effects of four antiepileptic drugs, tiagabine (TGB), vigabatrin (VGB), gabapentin (GBP) and valproate (VAL), on GAT1 transporter function by measurements of 3H-labelled GABA uptake and GAT1-mediated currents. 2. Not only TGB, a well-known inhibitor(More)