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Retroviruses contain two complete viral genomic RNAs in each virion. A system to study in a single round of replication the products of virions with two different genomic RNAs was established. A spleen necrosis virus-based splicing vector containing both the neomycin-resistance gene (neo) and the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hygro) was used. Two(More)
To elucidate the mechanism(s) of retroviral recombination, we exposed virions to gamma radiation prior to infecting target cells. By using previously described spleen necrosis virus-based vectors containing multiple markers, recombinant proviruses were studied after a single round of retrovirus replication. The current models of retroviral recombination(More)
BACKGROUND Bioactive molecules that are covalently immobilized in patterns on surfaces have previously been used to control or study cell behavior such as adhesion, spreading, movement or differentiation. Photoimmobilization techniques can be used, however, to control not only the spatial pattern of molecular immobilization, termed the micropattern, but(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) are potent lymphangiogenic and angiogenetic mediators in many kinds of tumors. However, the exact impacts of VEGF-C and VEGF-D on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain elusive. The aims of this study were to demonstrate the expression of(More)
Gradients of biological molecules on a microscale have been postulated to elicit cellular responses, such as migration. However, it has been difficult to prepare such gradients for experimental testing. A means for producing such gradients has been developed using a heterobifunctional photolinking agent with laser light activation. The photolinking agent(More)
  • C-l Shen, W S Hu
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1986
We have used chloroquine/agarose gel electrophoresis and a blot-hybridization technique to study the modulation of superhelicity of extrachromosomal DNA in mammalian cells. The high sensitivity of the procedure has allowed us to measure the change in the specific linking difference or superhelical density (sigma) of a plasmid, psvo alpha 1p3d, after its(More)
The human adult alpha globin genes, alpha 2 and alpha 1, are contained within two tandemly arranged duplication units. Each unit spans 4 kb of DNA, and contains three homology blocks (X, Y, Z) separated by non-homologous sequences. Segmental DNA recombination processes between the two units have resulted in high frequencies of two types of deletions in(More)