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c-Myc, a protooncogene, mediates both proliferative and cellular growth in many cell types. Although not expressed in the adult heart under normal physiological conditions, Myc expression is rapidly upregulated in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Although Myc is capable of sustaining hyperplastic growth in fetal myocytes, the effects of its re-expression(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms responsible for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced LV structural remodeling in the adult heart are not known. METHODS AND RESULTS We generated a line of transgenic mice (MHCsTNF) with cardiac restricted overexpression of TNF that develop progressive LV dilation/remodeling from 4 to 12 weeks of age. During the early phases of LV(More)
Our understanding of how mesodermal tissue is formed has been limited by the absence of specific and reliable markers of early mesoderm commitment. We report that mesoderm commitment from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is initiated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by gene expression profiling and by reciprocal changes in expression(More)
We have developed a generic mathematical model of a cell cycle signaling network in higher eukaryotes that can be used to simulate both the G1/S and G2/M transitions. In our model, the positive feedback facilitated by CDC25 and wee1 causes bistability in cyclin-dependent kinase activity, whereas the negative feedback facilitated by SKP2 or(More)
The cell division-independent growth of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes is commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. We demonstrate that it is accompanied by a substantial rise in transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) III, which produces essential components of the biosynthetic apparatus, including 5S rRNA and tRNAs. This increase in(More)
Oncogenic transformation of postmitotic neurons triggers cell death, but the identity of genes critical for degeneration remain unclear. The antitumor antibiotic mithramycin prolongs survival of mouse models of Huntington's disease in vivo and inhibits oxidative stress-induced death in cortical neurons in vitro. We had correlated protection by mithramycin(More)
The mammalian heart loses its regenerative potential soon after birth. Adult cardiac myocytes (ACMs) permanently exit the cell cycle, and E2F-dependent genes are stably silenced, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Heterochromatin, which silences genes in many biological contexts, accumulates with cardiac differentiation. H3K9me3, a histone(More)
BACKGROUND Successful autologous skeletal myoblast transplantation into infarcted myocardium in a variety of animal models has demonstrated improvement in cardiac function. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of transplanting autologous myoblasts into infarcted myocardium of patients undergoing concurrent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or left(More)
Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein typically involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene silencing. However, recent reports have demonstrated that HP1 can also activate gene expression in certain contexts including differentiation. To explore the role of each of the three mammalian HP1 family members (α, β(More)
Molecular dissection of mechanisms that govern the differentiated cardiac phenotype has, for cogent technical reasons, largely been undertaken to date in neonatal ventricular myocytes. To circumvent expected limitations of other methods, the present study was initiated to determine whether replication-deficient adenovirus would enable efficient gene(More)