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Conditional mutagenesis in mice has recently been made possible through the combination of gene targeting techniques and site–directed mutagenesis, using the bacteriophage P1–derived Cre/loxP recombination system. The versatility of this approach depends on the availability of mouse mutants in which the recombinase Cre is expressed in the appropriate cell(More)
In response to inflammatory stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable pattern of differentiation (maturation) that exhibits specific mechanisms to control immunity. Here, we show that in response to Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), several microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Among these miRNAs, miR-155 is highly(More)
There are five members of the RFX family of transcription factors in mammals. While RFX5 plays a well-defined role in the immune system, the functions of RFX1 to RFX4 remain largely unknown. We have generated mice with a deletion of the Rfx3 gene. RFX3-deficient mice exhibit frequent left-right (LR) asymmetry defects leading to a high rate of embryonic(More)
The bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a hereditary immunodeficiency resulting from the absence of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) expression. Considering the central role of MHCII molecules in the development and activation of CD4(+) T cells, it is not surprising that the immune system of the patients is severely impaired. BLS is the(More)
Jenny P.-Y. Ting,1,21 Ruth C. Lovering,2,21,22 Emad S. Alnemri,3 John Bertin,4 Jeremy M. Boss,5 Beckley K. Davis,1 Richard A. Flavell,6 Stephen E. Girardin,7 Adam Godzik,8 Jonathan A. Harton,9 Hal M. Hoffman,10 Jean-Pierre Hugot,11 Naohiro Inohara,12 Alex MacKenzie,13 Lois J. Maltais,14 Gabriel Nunez,12 Yasunori Ogura,15 Luc A. Otten,16 Dana Philpott,17(More)
Precise regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) gene expression plays a crucial role in the control of the immune response. A major breakthrough in the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in MHC-II regulation has recently come from the study of patients that suffer from a primary immunodeficiency resulting from(More)
MHC class II molecules are pivotal for the adaptive immune system, because they guide the development and activation of CD4+ T helper cells. Fulfilling these functions requires that the genes encoding MHC class II molecules are transcribed according to a strict cell-type-specific and quantitatively modulated pattern. This complex gene-expression profile is(More)
Until recently, the RFX family of DNA binding proteins consisted exclusively of four mammalian members (RFX1-RFX4) characterized by a novel highly conserved DNA binding domain. Strong conservation of this DNA binding domain precluded a precise definition of the motif required for DNA binding. In addition, the biological systems in which these RFX proteins(More)
RFX1 is a transactivator of human hepatitis B virus enhancer I. We show here that RFX1 belongs to a previously unidentified family of DNA-binding proteins of which we have cloned three members, RFX1, RFX2, and RFX3, from humans and mice. Members of the RFX family constitute the nuclear complexes that have been referred to previously as enhancer factor C,(More)
Regulation of MHC class II gene expression is an essential aspect of the control of the immune response. Primary MHC class II deficiency is a genetically heterogeneous disease of gene regulation that offers the unique opportunity of a genetic approach for the identification of the functionally relevant regulatory genes and factors. Most patients exhibit a(More)