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Recent in vitro studies have shown that acetylcholine (ACh) selectively reduces the efficacy of lateral cortical connections via a muscarinic mechanism, while boosting the efficacy of thalamocortical/feed-forward connections via a nicotinic mechanism. This suggests that high levels of ACh should reduce center-surround interactions of neurons in primary(More)
Cortical processing is strongly influenced by the actions of neuromodulators such as acetylcholine (ACh). Early studies in anaesthetized cats argued that acetylcholine can cause a sharpening of orientation tuning functions and an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of neuronal responses in primary visual cortex (V1). Recent in vitro studies have(More)
Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) selectively reduces the efficacy of lateral cortical connections via a muscarinic mechanism, while boosting the efficacy of thalamocortical/feed-forward connections via a nicotinic mechanism. This suggests that high levels of ACh should reduce centre-surround interactions of neurons in(More)
idaea L. and Calluna vulgaris L. In early June 2000, the trees on three plots were girdled at 1.5-m above ground, by complete removal of the bark over 0.3-m long sections around the circumferences of the stems (early girdled plots). In mid-August 2000, we girdled the trees on three other plots (late girdled plots). On both occasions, it took 2 people 4 days(More)
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