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Zonostrophic instability leads to the spontaneous emergence of zonal jets on a b plane from a jetless basic-state flow that is damped by bottom drag and driven by a random body force. Decomposing the barotropic vorticity equation into the zonal mean and eddy equations, and neglecting the eddy–eddy interactions, defines the quasilinear (QL) system. Numerical… (More)

Many studies have examined the processes involved in recognizing types of human action through sound, but little is known about whether the physical characteristics of an action (such as kinetic and kinematic parameters) can be perceived and imitated from sound. Twelve young healthy adults listened to recordings of footsteps on a gravel path taken from… (More)

- A J Manfroi, W R Young
- 1997

The authors study the stability of a barotropic sinusoidal meridional flow on a  plane. Because of bottom drag and lateral viscosity, the system is dissipative and forcing maintains a basic-state velocity that carries fluid across the planetary vorticity contours; this is a simple model of forced potential vorticity mixing. When the Reynolds number is… (More)

- Andrew F Thompson, William R Young, Uk
- 2006

The eddy heat flux generated by statistically equilibrated baro-clinic turbulence supported on a uniform, horizontal temperature gradient is examined using a two-layer β-plane quasigeostrophic model. The dependence of the eddy diffusivity of temperature, D τ , on external parameters such as β, bottom friction κ, the deformation radius λ and the velocity… (More)

- N J Balmforth, G R Ierley, W R Young
- 2001

Analytical estimates of the rate at which energy is extracted from the barotropic tide at topography and converted into internal gravity waves are given. The ocean is idealized as an inviscid, vertically unbounded fluid on the f plane. The gravity waves are treated by linear theory and freely escape to z ϭ ϱ. Several topographies are investigated: a… (More)

- François Pétrélis, Stefan Llewellyn Smith, W R Young
- 2006

The radiative flux of internal wave energy (the " tidal conversion ") powered by the oscillating flow of a uniformly stratified fluid over a two-dimensional submarine ridge is computed using an integral-equation method. The problem is characterized by two nondimensional parameters, A and B. The first parameter, A, is the ridge half-width scaled by h, where… (More)

The eddy heat flux generated by the statistically equilibrated baroclinic instability of a uniform, horizontal temperature gradient is studied using a two-mode f-plane quasigeostrophic model. An overview of the dependence of the eddy diffusivity D on the bottom friction , the deformation radius , the vertical variation of the large-scale flow U, and the… (More)

Managing gait disturbances in people with Parkinson's disease is a pressing challenge, as symptoms can contribute to injury and morbidity through an increased risk of falls. While drug-based interventions have limited efficacy in alleviating gait impairments, certain nonpharmacological methods, such as cueing, can also induce transient improvements to gait.… (More)

- Di Emanuele, Lorenzo, William R Young, Stefan Llewellyn Smith
- 2004

Numerical calculations of the rate at which energy is converted from the external to internal tides at steep oceanic ridges are compared with estimates from analytic theories. The numerical calculations are performed using a hydrostatic primitive equation ocean model that uses a generalized s-coordinate system as the vertical coordinate. The model [Regional… (More)

of the refractive index profile is maintained at the same value throughout the stack. Thick stacks of a constant small slope are equivalent to thin stacks of a constant large slope. This greatly eases the requirements for close control of the growth process.