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The interaction between peptidergic, sensory nerves and sympathetic fibers was examined in the rat iris. The putative peptide neurotransmitter, substance P, was used as an index of the sensory innervation, because the peptide is exclusively localized in the iris to trigeminal sensory fibers. Extirpation of the sympathetic, superior cervical ganglion(More)
Abnormalities of the occipital cranial suture in infancy can cause significant posterior cranial asymmetry, malposition of the ears, distortion of the cranial base, deformation of the forehead, and facial asymmetry. Over the past 2 years, we have noted a dramatic increase in the incidence of deformation of the occipital skull in our tertiary referral(More)
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts have been reported to migrate into a number of unusual locations within the abdomen, chest, and pelvis. We report a case in which a documented, correctly placed VP shunt subsequently migrated to an intravascular location. This intravascular migration led to malposition of the shunt tubing within the pulmonary artery.(More)
Aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery are relatively rare. Fourteen such aneurysms (10 vertebral, 4 peripheral) are reported, and their clinical presentation, surgical therapy, and outcome are discussed. All 14 patients had suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage; 93% (n = 13) underwent direct clipping of the aneurysm while 7% (n = 1) underwent(More)
Papilloedema is not always an adequate predictor of potential complications from lumbar puncture, and many clinicians are using computed tomography (CT) before lumbar puncture in an effort to identify more accurately the "at risk" patient. This paper identifies the following anatomical criteria defined by CT scanning that correlate with unequal pressures(More)
Twenty-two patients with closed myelomeningoceles, shunted hydrocephalus, and symptomatic Arnold-Chiari malformations were studied retrospectively. Seventeen of the 22 patients were aged 6 months or younger; five patients were aged 3 to 23 years. Patients in the younger group presented with stridor, apnea, and/or feeding difficulty; those in the older group(More)
Functional neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders ('psychosurgery') has a colorful, and sometimes dubious, history. From the time of the first operations in 1935 to today, its usefulness has been overshadowed by doubts and ethical questions. Psychosurgery became popular in the 1940s and early 1950s, especially in the United States. Its main indications were(More)
Advances in realtime ultrasound imaging and a greater availability of high-quality ultrasound equipment have resulted in an increased number of congenital abnormalities being diagnosed prenatally in the last 10-15 years. In addition, testing for maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, and serum unconjugated estriol has allowed(More)
Three patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors and secondary leptomeningeal spread of their tumors are presented. Two patients had astrocytomas and one had a ganglioglioma. Two tumors were located in the cervical spinal cord and one within the thoracic spinal cord. Review of the past and recent literature shows leptomeningeal dissemination of spinal(More)
Mechanisms regulating the content of the putative peptide transmitters, substance P and somatostatin, were examined in several neuronal populations in culture. Substance P levels increased more than 25-fold within 48 h in sympathetic neurons in the explanted rat superior cervical ganglion, and remained elevated for 4 weeks. Identity of the peptide was(More)