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A wealth of research from the past two decades shows that addictive behaviors are characterized by attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. We review the relevant evidence and present an integration of existing theoretical models to explain the development, causes, and consequences of addiction-related attentional biases. We suggest that through(More)
Decisions about using addictive substances are influenced by distractions by addiction-related stimuli, of which the user might be unaware. The addiction-Stroop task is a paradigm used to assess this distraction. The empirical evidence for the addiction-Stroop effect is critically reviewed, and meta-analyses of alcohol-related and smoking-related studies(More)
Alcohol abusers' and non-abusers' attentional distraction for alcohol-related, concern-related, and neutral stimuli was assessed with the emotional Stroop paradigm. Alcohol abusers (n=14) were tested on admission to inpatient treatment and immediately before discharge, 4 weeks later; non-abusers (n=16) were also tested twice, with a 4-week intervening(More)
The aims of the research were to (a) compare the alcohol attentional bias (AAB) of social, hazardous, and harmful drinkers and (b) assess the effects of alcohol attention-control training on the AAB and alcohol consumption of hazardous and harmful drinkers. Participants were social drinkers (N=40), hazardous drinkers (N=89), and harmful drinkers (N=92).(More)
AIMS (1) To examine whether or not motivational interviewing (MI) is more efficacious than no intervention in reducing alcohol consumption; (2) to examine whether or not MI is as efficacious as other interventions. METHOD A literature search followed by a meta-analytic review of randomized control trials of MI interventions. Aggregated between-group(More)
In slot machine gambling, the "near-miss effect" (when a losing display physically resembles an actual win display) has been implicated in pathological gambling (PG). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with PG and non-PG participants shows that near-misses recruit reward-related circuitry, but little is known about the temporal dynamics and(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence that exerting self-control during alcohol craving can diminish performance on subsequent tasks that require self-control. Based on the resource depletion model (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000), we examined the influence of alcohol cue exposure on detoxified alcohol-dependent patients' ability to inhibit ongoing responses. (More)
The effects of alcohol-related visual cues on cognitive processing in heavy and light social drinkers were assessed. Participants were exposed to either alcohol or control cues while they completed a cognitively demanding emotional Stroop task that used alcohol-related and control words as potential distracters. Heavy drinkers exposed to alcohol cues had(More)
The course to alcohol dependence often starts with a preclinical period of heavy drinking. The present article reports functional magnetic resonance imaging data showing that even this pattern of alcohol consumption is associated with maladaptive neural responses to alcohol and other stimuli. When participants were confronted with visual cues related to(More)