W. Martin Kast

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The Cancer Vaccine Consortium of the Sabin Vaccine Institute (CVC/SVI) is conducting an ongoing large-scale immune monitoring harmonization program through its members and affiliated associations. This effort was brought to life as an external validation program by conducting an international Elispot proficiency panel with 36 laboratories in 2005, and was(More)
The greatest risk factor for the development of cervical and other cancers that have been linked to the human papillomavirus (HPV) family is the persistence of the virus. To persist for the decades required to develop HPV-related cancers, the virus must escape host immunity. HPV is a simple DNA virus that has evolved to escape immune attack by a combination(More)
CTLs specific to p53 were previously shown to efficiently eradicate p53-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro as well as in vivo. In this report, we demonstrate that these CTLs can also eliminate tumors that display moderate or even low levels of p53. Neither high steady-state levels of p53 nor elevated p53 synthesis is a prerequisite for recognition of(More)
Mucosotropic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted viruses that are causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk genotype, HPV16, is an obligatory intracellular virus that must gain entry into host epithelial cells and deliver its double stranded DNA to the nucleus. HPV capsid proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved mammalian protein characterized in rabbit, mouse, monkey, baboon, macaque, human testis and spermatozoa. mRNA encoding Sp17 has been detected in a range of murine and human somatic tissues. It was also recognized in two myeloma cell lines and in neoplastic cells from patients with multiple myeloma and(More)
The incidence of cancer increases significantly in later life, yet few pre-clinical studies of cancer immunotherapy use mice of advanced age. A novel vaccine delivery platform (VacciMax,VM) is described that encapsulates antigens and adjuvants in multilamellar liposomes in a water-in-oil emulsion. The therapeutic potential of VM-based vaccines administered(More)
Sperm protein (Sp17) is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC) vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic(More)
The hypothesis that human cancers express antigens that can be specifically targeted by cell mediated immunity has become a scientifically justifiable rationale for the design and clinical testing of novel tumor-associated antigens (TAA). Although a number of TAA have been recognized and it has been suggested that they could be useful in the immunological(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma tumors are known to express antigens that usually induce weak immune responses of short duration. Expression of both tumor-associated antigens p53 and TRP2 by melanoma cells raises the possibility of simultaneously targeting more than one antigen in a therapeutic vaccine. In this report, we show that VacciMax (VM), a novel liposome-based(More)
Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) serves as a carrier for water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) vaccines. The stability of such emulsions greatly affects vaccine safety and efficacy since continued presence of antigen depots at lymphoid organs releasing low-level antigens is known to stimulate a potent immune response and high-level systemic release of antigens can(More)