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HNF-4 (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4) is a protein enriched in liver extracts that binds to sites required for the transcription of the genes for transthyretin (TTR), the carrier protein in the serum for vitamin A and thyroid hormone, and for apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), a major constituent of chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Synthetic(More)
Norovirus and Sapovirus are two genera of the family Caliciviridae that contain viruses that can cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. Noroviruses (NOR) are genetically highly diverse but limited studies of the genetic diversity of sapoviruses (SAP) have been reported. In this study we characterized twenty-five SAP detected in our laboratory from outbreaks(More)
A primer pair (p289/290) based on the RNA polymerase sequence of 25 prototype and currently circulating strains of human caliciviruses (HuCVs) was designed for the detection of both Norwalk-like caliciviruses (NLVs) and Sapporo-like caliciviruses (SLVs) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This primer pair produces RT-PCR products of(More)
cDNA clones were produced from a morphologically typical human calicivirus (HuCV) in stool specimens collected in 1982 during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in Sapporo, Japan. The cDNA clones were generated separately in two laboratories by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers 35 and 36 derived from Norwalk virus. The(More)
 We identified a Norwalk-like calicivirus (CV) whose genome likely was derived from naturally occurring recombination. This strain (Arg320) was detected by the EIA developed against recombinant Mexico virus (rMxV) capsids, but the viral RNA polymerase sequence was closer to Lordsdale virus, in a separate genetic cluster of Norwalk-like viruses. A 3.3 kb(More)
The application of molecular technologies, such as the expression of viral proteins in baculovirus, has provided a powerful approach to the diagnosis of human calicivirus (HuCV) infections. The baculovirus-expressed HuCV capsid protein self-assembles into virus-like particles, providing excellent reagents for immunologic assays, such as enzyme immunoassays(More)
 Human caliciviruses (HuCVs) are antigenically diverse. The antigenic relationships among different HuCVs have been difficult to study because HuCVs cannot be passaged in the laboratory. In this study, we describe cloning, sequencing and expression of the viral capsid proteins of three HuCVs that were identified in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in(More)
Caliciviruses (CVs) include at least 42 distinct serotypes. Seventeen CV serotypes have been isolated from marine sources and are called San Miguel sea lion caliciviruses (SMSVs). CVs also have been isolated from reptiles, primates, and other terrestrial animals. Nucleotide sequences from portions of genome of prototype strains for six SMSV serotypes, the(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a liver-enriched transcription factor and a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. HNF-4 is required for the hepatoma-specific expression of HNF-1 alpha, another liver-enriched transcription factor, suggesting the early participation of HNF-4 in development. To prepare for further study of HNF-4 in(More)
Two-hundred Mexican children monitored from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort study of diarrhea were tested for Norwalk virus (NV) and Norwalk-related virus infection. Blood was collected quarterly and tested by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using the recombinant NV (rNV) particles as antigen. Stool was collected weekly and tested by an EIA using(More)