W M Rainforth

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It is often the dynamic microstructural changes induced by tribological contact that determine whether or not a material exhibits good wear resistance. It is well known that the mechanical properties of a surface are significantly different from the bulk, an effect amplified by wear induced plastic deformation and electrochemical effects. Despite the(More)
Zirconia has been used as an orthopaedic material since 1985 and is increasingly used in dental applications. One major concern with the use of zirconia is the significant loss in mechanical properties through hydrothermal degradation, with the uncontrolled transformation of tetragonal to monoclinic (t→m) zirconia. We report on the addition of alumina and(More)
Alumina hip replacement prostheses have been analyzed following in vitro simulated microseparation. The worn surfaces of the alumina acetabular cup and femoral head were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) which identified four different wear zones. Focused ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning was used to(More)
The transformation on heating LiCoMnO4, with a spinel structure, to LiCoMnO3, with a cation-disordered rock salt structure, accompanied by loss of 25% of the oxygen, has been followed using a combination of diffraction, microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The transformation does not proceed by a topotactic mechanism, even though the spinel and rock salt(More)
High-resolution electron backscatter diffraction has been used to study the effects of strain reversal on the evolution of microbands in commercial purity aluminium alloy AA1200. Deformation was carried out using two equal steps of forward/forward or forward/reverse torsion at a temperature of 300 degrees C and strain rate of 1 s(-1) to a total equivalent(More)
CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) is a cubic perovskite phase and sintered ceramics exhibit high permittivity at room temperature. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) data have been collected from samples of CCTO to relate the observed electrical properties to the microstructure and chemistry on the nanoscale. CCTO(More)
The performance of total hip-joint replacements depends strongly on the state of lubrication in vivo. In order to test candidate prosthetic materials, in vitro wear testing requires a lubricant that behaves in the same manner as synovial fluid. The current study investigated three lubricants and looked in detail at the lubrication conditions and the(More)
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the orientation dependence of substructure characteristics in an austenitic Fe-30wt%Ni model alloy subjected to hot plane strain compression. Deformation was carried out at a temperature of 950 degrees C using a strain rate of 10 s(-1) to equivalent strain levels of approximately 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8.(More)
Zirconia femoral heads retrieved from patients after different implantation periods (up to 13 years) were analysed using vertical scanning interferometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. A range of topographical and compositional changes on the surface of the retrievals are reported in this work. The study revealed that changes in(More)
The evolution of crystallographic texture and deformation substructure was studied in a type 316L austenitic stainless steel, deformed in rolling at 900 degrees C to true strain levels of about 0.3 and 0.7. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used in the investigation and a comparison of the substructural(More)