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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
We investigated the transport of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters by the potential-sensitive organic transporter OCT3 and its steroid sensitivity using heterologous expression systems and also analyzed the expression of OCT3 in the brain. When expressed in mammalian cells, OCT3 mediates the uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
The identification of mutations in the SRY-related SOX9 gene in patients with campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal malformation syndrome, and the abundant expression of Sox9 in mouse chondroprogenitor cells and fully differentiated chondrocytes during embryonic development have suggested the hypothesis that SOX9 might play a role in chondrogenesis. Our(More)
In humans, SOX9 heterozygous mutations cause the severe skeletal dysmorphology syndrome campomelic dysplasia. Except for clinical descriptions, little is known about the pathogenesis of this disease. We have generated heterozygous Sox9 mutant mice that phenocopy most of the skeletal abnormalities of this syndrome. The Sox9(+/-) mice died perinatally with(More)
We investigated the effect of incorporating information about proband and parental structural language phenotypes into linkage analyses in the two regions for which we found the highest signals in our first-stage affected sibling pair genome screen: chromosomes 13q and 7q. We were particularly interested in following up on our chromosome 7q finding in light(More)
The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have(More)
We examined in this study the expression of the potential-sensitive organic cation transporter OCT3 in the kidney. A functionally active OCT3 was cloned from a mouse kidney cDNA library. The cloned transporter was found to be capable of mediating potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations including tetraethylammonium. This function was(More)
The structural similarity of lysosphingolipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) prompted a sequence-based search for lysosphingolipid receptors using cDNA sequence of the Edg2 human LPA receptor. Two closely related G protein-coupled receptors, rat H218 and human Edg3, are highly similar to Edg2. When overexpressed in Jurkat cells, H218 and Edg3 activated(More)
Almost all variables in biology are nonstationarily stochastic. For these variables, the conventional tools leave us a feeling that some valuable information is thrown away and that a complex phenomenon is presented imprecisely. Here, we apply recent advances initially made in the study of ocean waves to study the blood pressure waves in the lung. We note(More)
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)