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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have(More)
Platelet-dependent arterial thrombosis triggers most heart attacks and strokes. Because the coagulation protease thrombin is the most potent activator of platelets, identification of the platelet receptors for thrombin is critical for understanding thrombosis and haemostasis. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is important for activation of human(More)
The identification of mutations in the SRY-related SOX9 gene in patients with campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal malformation syndrome, and the abundant expression of Sox9 in mouse chondroprogenitor cells and fully differentiated chondrocytes during embryonic development have suggested the hypothesis that SOX9 might play a role in chondrogenesis. Our(More)
We investigated the transport of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters by the potential-sensitive organic transporter OCT3 and its steroid sensitivity using heterologous expression systems and also analyzed the expression of OCT3 in the brain. When expressed in mammalian cells, OCT3 mediates the uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium(More)
In humans, SOX9 heterozygous mutations cause the severe skeletal dysmorphology syndrome campomelic dysplasia. Except for clinical descriptions, little is known about the pathogenesis of this disease. We have generated heterozygous Sox9 mutant mice that phenocopy most of the skeletal abnormalities of this syndrome. The Sox9(+/-) mice died perinatally with(More)
Despite the fact that the continuity of morphology of fossil specimens of modern humans found in China has repeatedly challenged the Out-of-Africa hypothesis, Chinese populations are underrepresented in genetic studies. Genetic profiles of 28 populations sampled in China supported the distinction between southern and northern populations, while the latter(More)
The structural similarity of lysosphingolipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) prompted a sequence-based search for lysosphingolipid receptors using cDNA sequence of the Edg2 human LPA receptor. Two closely related G protein-coupled receptors, rat H218 and human Edg3, are highly similar to Edg2. When overexpressed in Jurkat cells, H218 and Edg3 activated(More)
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
We report here on the cloning and functional characterization of the protein responsible for the system A amino acid transport activity that is known to be expressed in most mammalian tissues. This transporter, designated ATA2 for amino acid transporter A2, was cloned from rat skeletal muscle. It is distinct from the neuron-specific glutamine transporter(More)