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Benzene is known to have toxic effects on the blood and bone marrow, but its impact at levels below the U.S. occupational standard of 1 part per million (ppm) remains uncertain. In a study of 250 workers exposed to benzene, white blood cell and platelet counts were significantly lower than in 140 controls, even for exposure below 1 ppm in air. Progenitor(More)
There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing, and other industries. Epidemiologic studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of childhood cancer. The peak incidence of ALL between ages 2 and 5 is accounted for by one subtype, referred to as common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cALL). About 25% of cALL patients have the TEL-AML1 gene fusion derived from the t(12;21) chromosomal translocation. Recent evidence from(More)
Epidemiological studies show that benzene exposure is associated with an increased incidence of leukemia and perhaps lymphoma. Chromosomal rearrangements are common in these hematopoietic diseases. Translocation t(14;18), the long-arm deletion of chromosome 6 [del(6q)], and trisomy 12 are frequently observed in lymphoma patients. Rearrangements of the MLL(More)
Benzene is a recognized hematotoxicant and carcinogen that produces genotoxic damage. DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are one of the most severe DNA lesions caused directly and indirectly by benzene metabolites. DSB may lead to chromosome aberrations, apoptosis and hematopoietic progenitor cell suppression. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in genes(More)
Benzene is an established human leukemogen. The mechanism of benzene-induced leukemogenesis, however, remains unclear, but chromosomal damage is thought to play a critical role. We previously reported that the loss of chromosomes 5 and 7 (monosomy 5 and 7) and the gain of chromosomes 8 and 21 (trisomy 8 and 21) are significantly increased in benzene-exposed(More)
Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers,(More)
Occupational cohort and case-control studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but findings are not consistent. There is a need for mechanistic studies to evaluate the biologic plausibility of this association. We carried out a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 80 healthy workers(More)
Both occupational exposure to the leukemogen benzene and in vitro exposure to its metabolite hydroquinone (HQ) lead to the induction of numerical and structural chromosome changes. Several studies have shown that HQ can form DNA adducts, disrupt microtubule assembly and inhibit DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) activity. As these are potential mechanisms(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with renal cancer. The biological mechanisms involved are not exactly known although nephrotoxicity is believed to play a role. Studies on TCE nephrotoxicity among humans, however, have been largely inconsistent. We studied kidney toxicity in Chinese factory workers(More)