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Early life stress in humans can affect the development of neurons and neurotransmitter systems and predispose an individual to the subsequent development of depression. Similarly, in rats, maternal separation causes anxiety and depressive-like behavior and decreased corticosterone levels. Patients receiving pharmacological treatment for depression often(More)
Early life adversity predisposes individuals to the development of psychopathology in later life, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Prior history of stressors may also be a vulnerability factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to trauma. We examined the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon by employing two animal(More)
Early adverse life events, followed by subsequent stressors, appear to increase susceptibility for subsequent onset of psychiatric disorders in humans. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear, but dysregulation of the HPA axis and alterations in neurotrophic factors have been implicated. The present study investigated the(More)
Effects of early-life trauma on adult behavioral responses, corticosterone (CORT) concentration, and levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in hippocampus and frontal cortex were investigated. Traumatized animals showed an increase in rearing in both the elevated plus maze and open field after(More)
Early life stress is known to predispose humans to the development of depression. Developmental stress has been shown to cause various changes in neurotransmitter systems, neurotrophin expression and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal-axis in the rat brain. The aim of this study was to identify which cytosolic proteins are altered by maternal separation, as(More)
While monoaminergic hypotheses of psychopathology remain popular, there has been growing interest in the role of neurotrophins in neuropsychiatric disorders. Basic laboratory work has documented the importance of neurotrophins in neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and a range of clinical studies has provided analogous evidence of their role in(More)
Animal models may be useful in investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders, and may contribute to the development of new medications. A computerized literature search was used to collect studies on recently developed animal models for anxiety disorders. Particular cognitive-affective processes (eg, fear conditioning, control of(More)
Zinc is an important component of proteins essential for normal functioning of the brain. However, it has been shown in vitro that this metal, at elevated levels, can be toxic to cells leading to their death. We investigated possible mechanisms of cell death caused by zinc: firstly, generation of reactive oxygen species, and secondly, the activation of the(More)
Unfavorable conditions under which children grow up may contribute significantly to the development of psychiatric abnormalities in adult life. We studied the effects of overcrowding at an early age and how it may result in anxiety later in life. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed 10 animals per cage, from birth until 4 weeks post-weaning. Rats housed 3 per(More)
Many studies have shown that early life stress may lead to impaired brain development, and may be a risk factor for developing psychiatric pathologies such as depression. However, few studies have investigated the impact that early life stress might have on the onset and development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, which is(More)