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From our experiment in fluid mechanics there is strong evidence that caloric nystagmus is caused by streaming endolymph in weightlessness as well as by gravity. Two different mechanisms are postulated: thermoconvection (dependent on gravity and head position) and thermo-induced change in volume (independent of those two factors). Our results indicate that… (More)
Bárány's theory of caloric nystagmus is based on the assumption of fluid convection in the perilymph. It was a great surprise that caloric nystagmus could be demonstrated in weightlessness as well, i.e. under conditions in which thermoconvection cannot occur because of loss of gravity. This phenomenon was explained by different theories, each of which is… (More)
Rotatory vestibular excitability is discussed on the basis of a fluid-mechanical theory. The principle of this theory, already described for caloric excitation, is that appropriate stimulus causes flows within the endolymph. Experimental and mathematical approaches indicate these flows to be essentially the same in caloric as in rotatory stimulation. The… (More)
Various theories on the mechanism of caloric vestibular excitability are discussed and compared with our model, which involves two factors of endolymph movement: thermoconvection and fluid expansion. With this theory, caloric nystagmus in microgravity can be explained, as well as certain phenomena on earth, such as different vestibular responses depending… (More)
In this paper, experimental and mathematical results are presented, indicating rotatory nystagmus to be caused by endolymph flow in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal. During positive or negative acceleration circular flows may develop within the endolymph system, especially in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal. While being… (More)