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Here we present a statistically rigorous approach to quantifying microarray expression data that allows the relative effects of multiple classes of treatment to be compared and incorporates analytical methods that are common to quantitative genetics. From the magnitude of gene effects and contributions of variance components, we find that gene expression in(More)
Spermatogenesis involves an early wave of germ cell apoptosis, which is required for maintaining the balance between germ cells and supporting Sertoli cells. However, the signaling mechanism regulating this apoptotic event is poorly defined. Here we show that genetic deficiency of Cyld, a recently identified deubiquitinating enzyme, attenuates the early(More)
Osteoclastogenesis is a tightly regulated biological process, and deregulation can lead to severe bone disorders such as osteoporosis. The regulation of osteoclastic signaling is incompletely understood, but ubiquitination of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) has recently been shown to be important in mediating this process. We therefore investigated(More)
The deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD has recently been implicated in the regulation of signal transduction, but its physiological function and mechanism of action are still elusive. In this study, we show that CYLD plays a pivotal role in regulating T cell activation and homeostasis. T cells derived from Cyld knockout mice display a hyperresponsive phenotype(More)
The molecular genetics of several signal transduction pathways is well characterized, providing an opportunity to address the nature of the population genetic forces acting on functionally related suites of pleiotropic regulatory genes. Signal transduction is the process by which signals are transmitted from the cell surface to the nucleus or other cellular(More)
The IkappaB kinase (IKK)-related kinases, IKKepsilon and TBK1, participate in the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) during viral infections. Deregulated activation of IKKepsilon and TBK1 also contributes to the abnormal cell survival and transformation. However, how these kinases are negatively regulated remains unclear. We show here that the tumor(More)
A long-period fiber-grating sensor with a high strain sensitivity of -7.6 pm/microepsilon and a low temperature sensitivity of 3.91 pm/ degrees C is fabricated by use of focused CO(2) laser beam to carve periodic grooves on a large- mode-area photonic crystal fiber. Such a strain sensor can effectively reduce the cross-sensitivity between strain and(More)
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) maintain immunological tolerance, and their deficiency results in fatal multiorgan autoimmunity. Although heightened signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is critical for the differentiation of Treg cells, the role of TCR signaling in Treg cell function remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that(More)
T cell activation is subject to tight regulation to avoid inappropriate responses to self antigens. Here we show that genetic deficiency in the ubiquitin ligase Peli1 caused hyperactivation of T cells and rendered T cells refractory to suppression by regulatory T cells and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). As a result, Peli1-deficient mice spontaneously(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pivotal in innate immunity and inflammation. Here we show that genetic deficiency in Peli1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, attenuated the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by ligands of TLR3 and TLR4 and rendered mice resistant to septic shock. Peli1 was required for TLR3-induced activation of IκB kinase (IKK) and its(More)