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Computer visualization techniques were used to map and to quantitatively reconstruct the entire locus coeruleus, including the nucleus subcoeruleus, to compare the topographic patterns of cell loss in postmortem brains from patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome. There was comparable cell loss in all three diseases(More)
Quantitative neuroanatomical techniques were developed to map the distribution of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the adult human brain. These neurons reside in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum and are identifiable by their neuromelanin pigment content. Five brains, ranging in age from 60 to 104 years, were examined. Outlines of(More)
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) was identified physiologically by inducing controlled locomotion on a treadmill in the precollicular rat following application of low amplitude current pulses to areas of the pontomesencephalic tegmentum. The same brains were processed using either of two techniques known to label neurons of the pedunculopontine(More)
Computer-aided techniques were used to reconstruct the complex renal tubular system in the dorsal kidney region of a marine elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Raja erinacea), from a series of light micrographs of serial sections. It was established that five individual segments of one nephron, consisting of two loops and a distal tubule, are arranged in(More)
Computer visualization techniques were used to map the distribution of dopaminergic neurons within midbrain tissue sections from 5 parkinsonian patients and 3 age-matched control subjects. The Parkinsonian brains had over 50% fewer dopaminergic neurons within the midbrain than age-matched normal brains. The cell loss occurred within the combined substantia(More)
In this study the effect of gonadectomy and steroid treatment on the dorsal component of the incertohypothalamic dopamine system or nucleus A13 was assessed by immunocytochemistry using an antibody raised to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A computer graphic system interfaced to a microscope was used to count and measure the diameters of TH-positive neurons and(More)
We examined serial 40 micron vibratome, immunoperoxidase-stained sections of the medulla with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) antisera followed by Nissl staining to locate catecholaminergic neurons in cytoarchitectonic regions followed by a three-dimensional (3D) computer(More)
Large herbivore populations respond strongly to remotely sensed measures of primary productivity. Whereas most studies in seasonal environments have focused on the effects of spring plant phenology on juvenile survival, recent studies demonstrated that autumn nutrition also plays a crucial role. We tested for both direct and indirect (through body mass)(More)
Although tropical forests account for only a fraction of the planet's terrestrial surface, they exchange more carbon dioxide with the atmosphere than any other biome on Earth, and thus play a disproportionate role in the global climate. In the next 20 years, the tropics will experience unprecedented warming, yet there is exceedingly high uncertainty about(More)
Gross primary production (GPP) plays an important role in the net ecosystem exchange of CO 2 between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems. It is particularly important to monitor GPP in Southeast Asia because of increasing rates of tropical forest OPEN ACCESS 2109 degradation and deforestation in the region in recent decades. The newly available,(More)