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- W. Kley
- 1999

We study the structure and dynamics of the gap created by a protoplanet in an accretion disc. The hydrodynamic equations for a flat, two-dimensional, non-selfgravitating protostellar accretion disc with an embedded, Jupiter sized protoplanet on a circular orbit are solved. To simulate possible accretion of mass onto the protoplanet we continually removeâ€¦ (More)

- W. Kley
- 2001

We study the evolution of embedded protoplanets in a protostellar disk using very high resolution nestedgrid computations. This method allows us to perform global simulations of planets orbiting in disks and, at the same time, to resolve in detail the dynamics of the flow inside the Roche lobe of the planet. The primary interest of this work lies in theâ€¦ (More)

- W. Kley
- 2008

The evolution of a system consisting of a protoplanetary disc with two embedded Jupiter sized planets is studied numerically. The disc is assumed to be flat and nonself gravitating, which is modeled by the planar (two-dimensional) Navier-Stokes equations. The mutual gravitational interaction of the planets and the star, and the gravitational torques of theâ€¦ (More)

In this work, the application of the Lagrangian particle method Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to problems in both terrestrial and gas giant planet formation is presented. One of the major problems of terrestrial planet formation is the growth from metre-sized protoplanetesimals to larger planetesimals which interact mainly gravitationally. In order toâ€¦ (More)

- S.-J. Paardekooper, C. Baruteau, AurÃ©lien Crida, W. Kley
- 2009

We study the torque on low-mass planets embedded in protoplanetary discs in the two-dimensional approximation, incorporating non-isothermal effects. We couple linear estimates of the Lindblad (or wave) torque to a simple, but non-linear, model of adiabatic corotation torques (or horseshoe drag), resulting in a simple formula that governs Type I migration inâ€¦ (More)

- C. Schaefer, W. Kley
- 2007

Context. Following the recent insight in the material structure of comets, protoplanetesimals are assumed to have low densities and to be highly porous agglomerates. It is still unclear if planetesimals can be formed from these objects by collisional growth. Aims. Therefore, it is important to study numerically the collisional outcome from low velocityâ€¦ (More)

- W. Kley, Jochen Peitz, Geoffrey Bryden
- 2003

We study the time evolution of two protoplanets still embedded in a protoplanetary disk. The results of two different numerical approaches are presented and compared. In the first approach, the motion of the disk material is computed with viscous hydrodynamical simulations, and the planetary motion is determined by Nbody calculations including exactly theâ€¦ (More)

- Friederike Brunner, W. Kley, Peter K. Plinkert
- Archives of oto-rhino-laryngology
- 1988

Miniplate osteosynthesis is an osteoplastic procedure that achieves secure stabilization of the midface, even following extensive fractures of the midface and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. This procedure can be considered a satisfactory operative treatment in terms of cosmetic and functional results. Correlative osteology is discussed andâ€¦ (More)

- R. Kissmann, J. Pomoell, W. Kley
- J. Comput. Physics
- 2009

- W. Kley, Gerben Dirksen
- 2005

Aims. We investigate the response of an accretion disk to the presence of a perturbing protoplanet embedded in the disk through time dependent hydrodynamical simulations. Methods. The disk is treated as a two-dimensional viscous fluid and the planet is kept on a fixed orbit. We run a set of simulations varying the planet mass, and the viscosity andâ€¦ (More)