W. John Russell

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Human error is a pervasive and normal part of everyday life and is of interest to the anaesthetist because errors may lead to accidents. Definitions of, and the relationships between, errors, incidents and accidents are provided as the basis to this introduction to the psychology of human error in the context of the work of the anaesthetist. Examples are(More)
The Australian Patient Safety Foundation was formed in 1987; it was decided to set up and co-ordinate the Australian Incident Monitoring Study as a function of this Foundation; 90 hospitals and practices joined the study. Participating anaesthetists were invited to report, on an anonymous and voluntary basis, any unintended incident which reduced, or could(More)
Human polyomavirus (BK) was detected in two renal allograft recipients as a result of routine examination of Papanicolaou-stained smears of urinary sediment in the light microscope. Infection with this recently identified virus was confirmed by virus isolation and electron microscopy. The cytological, histological, and ultrastructural changes due to the(More)
We studied the effects of a cold pressor test on the plasma catecholamine levels of ten patients undergoing coronary angiography, to determine whether the pressor changes were related to adrenergic activity. To investigate the relative contribution of adrenal medullary catecholamine release, we subjected two adrenalectomised volunteers to the same test.(More)
Previous studies using an in vivo rabbit model in which lung tissue hypoxia/hypoperfusion was created by unilateral lung collapse for 7 days demonstrated a decrease in MnSOD activity in previously hypoxic/hypoperfused lungs. In the present study, we determined whether tissue hypoxia/hypoperfusion decreased MnSOD protein concentration or mRNA expression in(More)
Limited dose-response curves for superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in isolated and in vivo hearts. SOD at 2.3, 7, 20, or 50 mg/L suppressed CK release in Langendorff rat hearts by 61%, 63%, 72%, and 30%, respectively. SOD at 0.5, 1, 5, and 50 mg/L suppressed LDH release in Langendorff rabbit hearts by 32%, 48%, 54%, and -12%, respectively. In rabbit(More)
We examined the effect of no music, classical music or rock music on simulated patient monitoring. Twenty-four non-anaesthetist participants with high or low levels of musical training were trained to monitor visual and auditory displays of patients' vital signs. In nine anaesthesia test scenarios, participants were asked every 50-70 s whether one of five(More)
We reviewed the use of advanced display technologies for monitoring in anesthesia. Researchers are investigating displays that integrate information and that, in some cases, also deliver the results continuously to the anesthesiologist. Integrated visual displays reveal higher-order properties of patient state and speed in responding to events, but their(More)
The first 2000 incidents reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study were analysed with respect to problems with the endotracheal tube; 189 (9%) were reported. The most common problem was endobronchial intubation which accounted for 42% of these 189 reports; endobronchial intubation was the most common cause of arterial desaturation in the 2000(More)
We discuss the phenomenon of system tailoring in the context of data from an observational study of anaesthesia. We found that anaesthetists tailor their monitoring equipment so that the auditory alarms are more informative. However, the occurrence of tailoring by anaesthetists in the operating theatre was infrequent, even though the flexibility to tailor(More)