W. John Hutchins

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The translation of natural languages by machine, first dreamt of in the seventeenth century, has become a reality in the late twentieth. Computer programs are producing translations not perfect translations, for that is an ideal to which no human translator can aspire; nor translations of literary texts, for the subtleties and nuances of poetry are beyond(More)
The history of machine translation is described from its beginnings in the 1940s to the present day. In the earliest years, efforts were concentrated either on developing immediately useful systems, however crude in their translation quality, or on fundamental research for high quality translation systems. After the ALPAC report in 1966, which virtually(More)
The translation of natural languages by machine, first dreamt of in the seventeenth century, has become a reality in the late twentieth. Computer programs are producing translations not perfect translations, for that is an ideal to which no human translator can aspire; nor translations of literary texts, for the subtleties and nuances of poetry are beyond(More)
Asthma is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation of the airways. Although proinflammatory lipids are involved in asthma, therapies targeting them remain lacking. Ac-DWFKAFYDKVAEKFKEAFNH(2) (4F) is an apolipoprotein (apo)A-I mimetic that has been shown to preferentially bind oxidized lipids and improve HDL function. The objective of the present(More)
Victor Yngve (5 July 1920 to 15 January 2012) was a major contributor in a number of fields within computational linguistics: as the leading researcher in machine translation (MT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as editor of its first journal, as designer and developer of the first non-numerical programming language (COMIT), and as an(More)
Victor Yngve (5 July 1920 to 15 January 2012) was a major contributor in a number of fields within computational linguistics: as the leading researcher in machine translation (MT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as editor of its first journal, as designer and developer of the first non-numerical programming language (COMIT), and as an(More)
AIMS Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger that is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) with the GGDEF-domain, regulates diverse virulence phenotypes in pathogenic bacteria. Although 11 genes encoding GGDEF-domain proteins have been shown in the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain PXO99(A) , the causal(More)