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Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
Reports suggest that two members of the novel immune-associated nucleotide (Ian) GTPase family, Ian1 and Ian5, play roles in T cell development. We performed real-time PCR analysis of the expression of Ian genes of the rat during T cell maturation, in macrophages and in cell lines. We found that all of the genes were expressed at relatively low levels at(More)
typically possess a PH domain that can bind the lipid and drive translocation of the host protein to the site of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 accumulation Summary in the plasma membrane (not all PH domains bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ; Lemmon and Ferguson, 2000). In many Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric cells, type 1 PI3Ks have been shown to be necessary GTPases,(More)
The T-cell immune response is directed against antigenic peptide fragments generated in intracellular compartments, the cytosol or the endocytic system. Peptides derived from cytosolic proteins, usually of biosynthetic origin, are presented efficiently to T-cell receptors by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, with which they assemble,(More)
Short antigenic peptides bound in the groove of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules enable T cells to detect intracellular pathogens. It has been assumed that structural features of the class I molecule alone select which peptides are bound. It is now demonstrated that a complex polymorphism in one of the major histocompatibility(More)
The genes for rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are associated either with those for the A allele of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-A), which can transport peptides with basic carboxy-terminal residues, or with those for TAP-B, which cannot [1-5]. To explore whether these associations have a functional(More)
The small GTPase Rac controls cell morphology, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species formation. Manipulations of Rac activity levels in the cerebellum result in motor coordination defects, but activators of Rac in the cerebellum are unknown. P-Rex family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors activate Rac. We show here that, whereas P-Rex1 expression(More)
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