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The monomeric GTPase Rac and the lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are intracellular signalling enzymes that each regulate a huge range of cellular functions. Their signalling pathways overlap. Several pathways lead from PI3K activation via the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3))(More)
Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric GTPases, is an integrator of intracellular signaling in a wide range of cellular processes. We have purified a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-sensitive activator of Rac from neutrophil cytosol. It is an abundant, 185 kDa guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), which we cloned and named P-Rex1. The recombinant enzyme has(More)
We identified a potential phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) binding pleckstrin homology domain in the data bases and have cloned and expressed its full coding sequence (LL5beta). The protein bound PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) selectively in vitro. Strikingly, a substantial proportion of LL5beta became associated with an unidentified(More)
typically possess a PH domain that can bind the lipid and drive translocation of the host protein to the site of PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 accumulation Summary in the plasma membrane (not all PH domains bind PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ; Lemmon and Ferguson, 2000). In many Rac, a member of the Rho family of monomeric cells, type 1 PI3Ks have been shown to be necessary GTPases,(More)
Rac GTPases regulate cytoskeletal structure, gene expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Rac2-deficient neutrophils cannot chemotax, produce ROS, or degranulate upon G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Deficiency in PI3Kgamma, an upstream regulator of Rac, causes a similar phenotype. P-Rex1, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor(More)
P-Rex1 is a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the small GTPase Rac. We have investigated here the mechanisms of stimulation of P-Rex1 Rac-GEF activity by the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) and the Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. We show that a P-Rex1 mutant lacking the PH(More)
Short antigenic peptides bound in the groove of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules enable T cells to detect intracellular pathogens. It has been assumed that structural features of the class I molecule alone select which peptides are bound. It is now demonstrated that a complex polymorphism in one of the major histocompatibility(More)
The genes for rat major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are associated either with those for the A allele of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-A), which can transport peptides with basic carboxy-terminal residues, or with those for TAP-B, which cannot [1-5]. To explore whether these associations have a functional(More)
Cloning and characterization of classical MHC class I coding sequences of the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus has been reported so far for only four haplotypes, RT1a, RT1(1), RT1n, and RT1u. In all four cases, only one RT1.A classical class I molecule was found. Here we report that, in contrast, the RT1c haplotype expresses two different classical class I(More)
The transporter associated with Ag processing, TAP, is an endoplasmic reticulum resident heterodimeric member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. TAP transports short peptides from cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for loading into recently synthesized class I MHC molecules. In the rat, two alleles of the TAP2 chain differ in their(More)