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CONTEXT The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of estrogen plus progestin was stopped early because of adverse effects, including an increased risk of stroke in the estrogen plus progestin group. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of estrogen plus progestin on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and in subgroups, and to determine whether the effect of estrogen(More)
Sleep disorders are a relatively common occurrence after brain injury. Sleep disturbances often result in a poor daytime performance and a poor individual sense of well-being. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and often disabling sequela of brain injury. This study attempts to define and to correlate the incidence and type(More)
Millions of people worldwide suffer from diseases that lead to paralysis through disruption of signal pathways between the brain and the muscles. Neuroprosthetic devices are designed to restore lost function and could be used to form an electronic 'neural bypass' to circumvent disconnected pathways in the nervous system. It has previously been shown that(More)
BACKGROUND Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications in the elderly, but their relationship with incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable dementia is unknown. METHODS The study cohort included 6,998 cognitively healthy, postmenopausal women, aged 65-79 years, who were enrolled in a hormone therapy clinical trial and had baseline(More)
Prospective studies establish cognitive status as an important determinant of post-stroke rehabilitation success. The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) briefly assesses cognition in the ability areas of language, constructions, memory, calculation and reasoning. The NCSE, as well as the commonly used Mini-Mental State Examination and(More)
Agitation and confusion appear to be associated in the early period of recovery from traumatic head injury. Eighteen severely head-injured patients were assessed during acute rehabilitation for both the extent of agitation and level of cognitive functioning. Agitation was measured by the Agitated Behavior Scale developed by Corrigan. Simultaneous(More)
The case of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient with dramatic cognitive deterioration in the absence of medical aetiology other than simultaneous decline in serum sodium led to an investigation of the association between declines in sodium levels and cognitive status. In a population of 50 persons undergoing TBI rehabilitation, 12 (24%) had relative (3(More)
We have observed five individuals who appear to represent a unique subgroup of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Because of the prominence of severe ataxia, this group has been labelled the 'ataxic subgroup'. These individuals are distinguished by both clinical course and outcome, including severe ataxia, prolonged coma and prolonged(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and advanced related methods such as diffusion spectrum and kurtosis imaging are limited by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at conventional field strengths. DTI at 7 T can provide increased SNR; however, B0 and B1 inhomogeneity and shorter T2⁎ still pose formidable challenges. The purpose of this study was to quantify and(More)