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CONTEXT The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of estrogen plus progestin was stopped early because of adverse effects, including an increased risk of stroke in the estrogen plus progestin group. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of estrogen plus progestin on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and in subgroups, and to determine whether the effect of estrogen(More)
Sleep disorders are a relatively common occurrence after brain injury. Sleep disturbances often result in a poor daytime performance and a poor individual sense of well-being. Unfortunately, there has been minimal attention paid to this common and often disabling sequela of brain injury. This study attempts to define and to correlate the incidence and type(More)
Millions of people worldwide suffer from diseases that lead to paralysis through disruption of signal pathways between the brain and the muscles. Neuroprosthetic devices are designed to restore lost function and could be used to form an electronic 'neural bypass' to circumvent disconnected pathways in the nervous system. It has previously been shown that(More)
Prospective studies establish cognitive status as an important determinant of post-stroke rehabilitation success. The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) briefly assesses cognition in the ability areas of language, constructions, memory, calculation and reasoning. The NCSE, as well as the commonly used Mini-Mental State Examination and(More)
Communicating normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is an important remote complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The diagnosis of this hydrocephalus depends largely on clinical signs and symptoms, including cognitive deterioration, gait changes and incontinence. However, many of these signs are also seen during post-traumatic amnesia, making early(More)
We have observed five individuals who appear to represent a unique subgroup of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Because of the prominence of severe ataxia, this group has been labelled the 'ataxic subgroup'. These individuals are distinguished by both clinical course and outcome, including severe ataxia, prolonged coma and prolonged(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation has generated extensive interest within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation community, but little work has been done with repetitive protocols, which can produce prolonged changes in behavior. This is partly because of concerns about the safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in subjects(More)
Use of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) has been linked to smaller regional brain volumes in women aged ≥65 years; however, it is unknown whether this results in a broad-based characteristic pattern of effects. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess regional volumes of normal tissue and ischemic lesions among 513 women who had been(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and advanced related methods such as diffusion spectrum and kurtosis imaging are limited by low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at conventional field strengths. DTI at 7 T can provide increased SNR; however, B0 and B1 inhomogeneity and shorter T2⁎ still pose formidable challenges. The purpose of this study was to quantify and(More)
The impact of a traumatic brain injury on the family of the injured person is just beginning to be explored. In the current study, 61 primary caregivers were contacted at 1 year following injury. They completed the Relative and Friend Support Index, Social Support Index, Trauma Complaints List and the Life Change Question. The majority of caregivers(More)