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Androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) both play critical roles for the development of the male phenotype. To investigate the roles of androgens in the developing nervous system, we examined the AR messenger RNA distribution by in situ hybridization. Our results indicate that AR transcripts were detectable in male mouse embryos at embryonic day 11(More)
Previously, we reported that the nuclear orphan receptor TR4 could induce transcriptional activity via the 5th intron of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) alpha receptor gene (CNTFR-I5). Here we show CNTF could increase TR4 expression and enhance the DNA-binding capacity of TR4. Interestingly, the expression of TR2, a close family member of TR4, could(More)
A conserved hormone response element, CNTFR-DR1 (5'-AGGTCAGAGGTCAGG-3'), has been identified in the 5th intron of the alpha component of the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFRalpha) gene for the human TR4 orphan receptor (TR4). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a specific binding with high affinity (Kd = 0.066 nM) between TR4 and the(More)
The prospect of using cell-based interventions (CBIs) to treat neurological conditions raises several important ethical and policy questions. In this target article, we focus on issues related to the unique constellation of traits that characterize CBIs targeted at the central nervous system. In particular, there is at least a theoretical prospect that(More)
There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it,(More)
role in earth system processes. They are ubiquitous, possess enormous metabolic and physiological versatility and are essential to virtually all biogeochemical cycling processes — microbial carbon and nitrogen are calculated to be, respectively, equivalent to and tenfold as great as the carbon and nitrogen stored in plants 1. Although small (~10 –6 m), they(More)