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The Spemann organizer in amphibian embryos is a tissue with potent head-inducing activity, the molecular nature of which is unresolved. Here we describe dickkopf-1 (dkk-1), which encodes Dkk-1, a secreted inducer of Spemann's organizer in Xenopus and a member of a new protein family. Injections of mRNA and antibody indicate that dkk-1 is sufficient and(More)
Although cell migration is crucial for neural development, molecular mechanisms guiding neuronal migration have remained unclear. Here we report that the secreted protein Slit repels neuronal precursors migrating from the anterior subventricular zone in the telencephalon to the olfactory bulb. Our results provide a direct demonstration of a molecular cue(More)
Wnt glycoproteins have been implicated in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa. They signal through frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors to stabilize beta-catenin. Wnt signalling is antagonized by the extracellular Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1), which is a member of a multigene family. dkk1 was initially identified as a(More)
The Spemann organizer of the amphibian embryo can be subdivided into two discrete activities, namely trunk organizer and head organizer. Several factors secreted from the organizer that are involved in trunk organization are thought to act by repressing Bmp signalling. With the exception of the secreted factor cerberus, little is known about head-organizer(More)
The gene apparently responsible for a heritable form of murine pituitary-dependent dwarfism (Ames dwarf, df) has been positionally cloned, identifying a novel, tissue-specific, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, termed Prophet of Pit-1 (Prop-1). The df phenotype results from an apparent failure of initial determination of the Pit-1 lineage(More)
The Ras-related GTP-binding protein Cdc42 is implicated in a variety of biological activities including the establishment of cell polarity in yeast, the regulation of cell morphology, motility and cell-cycle progression in mammalian cells and the induction of malignant transformation. We identified a Cdc42 mutant (Cdc42F28L) which binds GTP in the absence(More)
  • W Wu
  • 1993
Recent studies have implicated nitric oxide (NO) in several mechanisms related to neuronal degeneration and synaptic plasticity. In the present study, two models of traumatic neuronal injury were used to examine the expression of NOS following neuronal injury and its relationship to axonal sprouting and neuronal degeneration. It was found that NOS is(More)
Experimental lesions have been used widely to induce motoneuron (MN) degeneration as a model to test the ability of different trophic molecules to prevent lesion-induced alterations. However, the morphological mechanisms of spinal MN death following different types of lesions is not clear at the present time. In this study, we have characterized the(More)
Cdc42 is a Ras-related GTP-binding protein that has been implicated in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology. In this study, we have identified a protein with a molecular mass approximately 180 kDa from rabbit liver cytosol (designated p180), which binds preferentially to the GTP- and guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate-bound forms of(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) testing several hundred thousand SNPs have been performed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other complex diseases. Typically, the number of markers in which the evidence for association exceeds the genome-wide significance threshold is very small, and markers that do not exceed this threshold are generally neglected.(More)