W. J. Matthews

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This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli are(More)
This paper examines the judgment of segmented temporal intervals, using short tone sequences as a convenient test case. In four experiments, we investigate how the relative lengths, arrangement, and pitches of the tones in a sequence affect judgments of sequence duration, and ask whether the data can be described by a simple weighted sum of segments model.(More)
It has been suggested that repeated stimuli have shorter subjective duration than novel items, perhaps because of a reduction in the neural response to repeated presentations of the same object. Five experiments investigated the effects of repetition on time perception and found further evidence that immediate repetition reduces apparent duration,(More)
Judgment and decision making research overwhelmingly uses null hypothesis significance testing as the basis for statistical inference. This article examines an alternative, Bayesian approach which emphasizes the choice between two competing hypotheses and quantifies the balance of evidence provided by the data—one consequence of which is that experimental(More)
Six experiments investigated how changes in stimulus speed influence subjective duration. Participants saw rotating or translating shapes in three conditions: constant speed, accelerating motion, and decelerating motion. The distance moved and average speed were the same in all three conditions. In temporal judgment tasks, the constant-speed objects seemed(More)
How the distribution and abundance of organisms vary across environmental gradients can reveal factors important in structuring aquatic communities. We sampled the littoral-zone fish community in a large reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas–Oklahoma (U.S.A.) border that has pronounced environmental gradients from up- to downlake and between major tributary(More)
Campostoma anomalum is an algae-grazing minnow, abundant in many streams of the central and eastern United States. In a small stream in south-central Oklahoma, Campostoma has a marked impact on standing crops of attached algae. Pools with schools of Campostoma are barren, while pools in which Campostoma are apparently excluded by bass (Micropterus salmoides(More)
Behavioural timing is frequently assumed to be based on the accumulation of pulses from a pacemaker. In humans, verbal estimation is often used to determine whether the effect of factors which influence subjective time become more pronounced at longer durations - that is, if they affect the slope of the judgment function, consistent with a change in the(More)
We used red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) as a model to examine ecosystem effects of water column stream minnows (Cyprinidae) in experimental streams. Benthic primary productivity, benthic invertebrate abundance, water column nutrient concentrations, size distribution of benthic particulate organic matter (BPOM), and sedimentation rates were measured across(More)
Many studies have shown the effects of yearly or monthly environmental conditions on the structure of fish and zooplankton communities. Environmental conditions can also vary greatly on much shorter time scales. We tested the effects of abiotic conditions on the daily abundance of fish and zooplankton in the littoral zone of Lake Texoma, Oklahoma-Texas.(More)