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BACKGROUND Spinal serotonin (5-HT) receptors 3 (5-HT3R) and 7 (5-HT7R) are differentially involved in facilitatory or inhibitory descending modulation, respectively. Electrophysiological studies of the spinal cord have demonstrated that 5-HT3R is involved in nociception induced by intraplantar injection of formalin, but not carrageenan. In addition,(More)
BACKGROUND We defined the nature of the pharmacological interaction after intrathecal co-administration of ginsenosides with clonidine, and clarified the contribution of the α-2 adrenoceptors on the effect of ginsenosides. METHODS Pain was evoked by injection of a formalin solution (5%, 50 μl) into the hindpaw of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Isobolographic(More)
BACKGROUND Paradoxical excitement response during sedation consists of loss of affective control and abnormal movements. Chronic alcohol abuse has been proposed as a predisposing factor despite lack of supporting evidence. Because alcohol and propofol have a common site of action, we postulated that paradoxical excitement responses during propofol-induced(More)
The population structure of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was estimated using nine polymorphic microsatellite (MS) loci in 459 individuals collected from eight populations, including five wild and three hatchery populations in Korea. Genetic variation in hatchery (mean number of alleles per locus, A = 10.2-12.1; allelic richness, A(R) = 9.3-10.1;(More)
Klebsiella oxytoca strains resistant to both aztreonam and ceftriaxone were isolated from six neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit and water reservoirs of two humidifiers attached to the neonatal incubators. These isolates were assumed to be of the same clone because they were characterized by the same antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed field gel(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage is an unusual complication of autonomic hyperreflexia (AHR), which can be fatal if massive bleeding occurs with subsequent brain herniation. Episodes of AHR are most often triggered by bladder and rectal distention. We present a case of a 45-year-old quadriplegic male who suffered left basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage(More)
The effect of precursor ratio (H2O/DEZ) on the texture orientation, surface morphology, optical transparency and electrical resistivity of ZnO thin films deposited by MOCVD was investigated. Deposition temperature and pressure were fixed at 120 degrees C and 0.67 torr, respectively. The precursor ratio was varied between 0.1 and 4. It was found that the(More)
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