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The importance of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) in pain transmission has been noticed gradually, as several VDCC blockers have been shown to be effective in inhibiting this process. In particular, the N-type VDCC has attracted attention, because inhibitors of this channel are effective in various aspects of pain-related phenomena. To understand(More)
Neuropeptides are slowly released from a limited pool of secretory vesicles. Despite decades of research, the composition of this pool has remained unknown. Endocrine cell studies support the hypothesis that a population of docked vesicles supports the first minutes of hormone release. However, it has been proposed that mobile cytoplasmic vesicles dominate(More)
Homeobox genes specify cell fate and positional identity in embryos throughout the animal kingdom. Paradoxically, although each has a specific function in vivo, the in vitro DNA-binding specificities of homeodomain proteins are overlapping and relatively weak. A current model is that homeodomain proteins interact with cofactors that increase specificity in(More)
alpha(1) subunit of the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel is essential for channel function and determines the functional specificity of various channel types. alpha(1E) subunit was originally identified as a neuron-specific one, but the physiological function of the Ca(2+) channel containing this subunit (alpha(1E) Ca(2+) channel) was not clear compared(More)
The acidic environment inside secretory vesicles ensures that neuropeptides and peptide hormones are packaged in a concentrated condensed form. Although this is optimal for storage, decondensation limits release. Thus, it would be advantageous to alter the physical state of peptides in preparation for exocytosis. Here, we report that depolarization of the(More)
A 14nm logic technology using 2 nd-generation FinFET transistors with a novel subfin doping technique, self-aligned double patterning (SADP) for critical patterning layers, and air-gapped interconnects at performance-critical layers is described. The transistors feature rectangular fins with 8nm fin width and 42nm fin height, 4 th generation high-k metal(More)
The expression of the Drosophila segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is controlled at the level of transcription. The proximal enhancer, located approximately 3.4 kb upstream of the transcription start site, directs lacZ fusion gene expression in a ftz-like seven-stripe pattern in transgenic fly embryos. We have taken a biochemical approach to identify(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac Purkinje cells (PCs) are important for the generation of triggered arrhythmias, particularly in association with abnormal repolarization. The effects of congestive heart failure (CHF) on the ionic properties of PCs are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS PCs were isolated from false tendons of control dogs and dogs with ventricular(More)
Human cancers often exhibit attenuated microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global underexpression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-26a enhances miRNA biogenesis, which acts as a common mechanism partially accounting for miR-26a function in diverse cancers including(More)
Cigarette smoking is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and reduced nitric oxide (NO) in the exhaled air of smokers. To explore the mechanism for the impairment of NO-mediated vasodilation, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on NO synthase (eNOS) activity and content in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC).(More)