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From May 1999, a new system for licensing older drivers was introduced in New Zealand. It included a practical on-road driving test with expanded scope, to be completed every two years from the time the driver turns 80. The relationship between crashes and test performance needed to be studied to inform the debate regarding the testing system. The(More)
This analysis addresses an issue that has concerned road safety authorities for some 28 years: the celebrated "Grand Rapids Dip." This, most readers will recognise, is the below-baseline excursion, which occurs in the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) interval of .01%-.04%, of the relative risk curve for accident risk versus blood alcohol, derived from the(More)
Since late 1989, the cycle helmet wearing rate in New Zealand has risen from around 20% for adults and teenagers, and 40% for younger children, to more than 90% in all age groups. Cycle helmet wearing became mandatory under New Zealand law in January 1994. This paper considers the effect of cycle helmet wearing on hospitalised head injuries between 1990 and(More)
It is a well-established phenomenon that, notwithstanding their overall good crash record, older drivers have a higher than average rate of involvement in injury crashes when the rate is calculated by dividing crash numbers by distance driven. It has been hypothesised that at least some of this higher crash rate is an artefact of the different nature of(More)
Breath alcohol measurements and other data collected at randomly selected roadside sites were combined with data on fatally injured drivers in crashes occurring on the same weekdays and times (Friday and Saturday nights) at locations matched by the size of the nearest town. A logistic model was fitted to these data for the years 1995-2000 to estimate the(More)
We discuss the effect of the kinetics of pH change on the mechanical properties of dipeptide hydrogels. Data from other peptide-based low molecular weight gelator (LMWG) systems suggest that the rheological properties are often highly dependent on the assembly rate. To examine kinetics here, we have used the hydrolysis of glucono-8-lactone (GdL). The(More)
The authors used data from the New Zealand Household Travel Survey to examine the extent to which children's pedestrian exposure varies with age, sex and household income. Pedestrian injury morbidity data were combined with pedestrian exposure data to examine age-specific pedestrian injury risk. The annual number of road crossings for girls was greater than(More)
A narrow-gap, temperature-controlled Couette flow rheometer has been developed to study fluid velocities within the annular gap between two concentric cylinders by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging and velocimetry. Alternative pulsed-field-gradient-based nuclear magnetic resonance imaging strategies which may be used for measurement of velocity(More)
As described in a previous paper [Accident Anal. Prev., 33 (2001) 277], the hidden camera programme was found to be associated with significant net falls in speeds, crashes and casualties both in 'speed camera areas' (specific signed sites to which camera operation is restricted) and on 100 km/h speed limit roads generally. These changes in speeds, crashes(More)
Overtly operated mobile speed cameras have been used in New Zealand since late 1993. Their operation has been confined to specific sites (called 'speed camera areas') which are mainly road sections with a record of speed-related crashes. A trial of hidden speed cameras began in mid-1997 in 100 km/h speed limit areas in one of New Zealand's four Police(More)