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A watermark is an invisible mark placed on an image that can be detected when the image is compared with the original. This mark is designed to identify both the source of an image as well as its intended recipient. The aims of this paper are to present an overview of watermark-ing techniques and to demonstrate a solution to one of the key problems in image(More)
We tested normal young and elderly adults and elderly Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on recognition memory for tunes. In Experiment 1, AD patients and age-matched controls received a study list and an old/new recognition test of highly familiar, traditional tunes, followed by a study list and test of novel tunes. The controls performed better than did(More)
In this study, we investigated the influence of tonal relatedness on pitch perception in melodies. Tonal expectations for target tones were manipulated in melodic contexts while controlling sensory expectations, thus allowing us to assess specifically the influence oftonal expectations on pitch perception. Three experimentsprovided converging evidence that(More)
Four experiments examined the possibility of a key-distance effect in a transposition detection task. Subjects heard standard melodies followed by comparison melodies presented in the same key, a musically near key or a musically far key. The task was to recognize comparisons that were exact transpositions of the standards, rejecting nontranspositions.(More)
The authors examined the effects of age, musical experience, and characteristics of musical stimuli on a melodic short-term memory task in which participants had to recognize whether a tune was an exact transposition of another tune recently presented. Participants were musicians and nonmusicians between ages 18 and 30 or 60 and 80. In 4 experiments, the(More)
In a continuous-running-memory task, subjects heard novel seven-note melodies that were tested after delays of 11 sec (empty) or 39 sec (filled). Test items were transposed to new pitch levels (to moderately distant keys in the musical sense) and included exact transpositions (targets), same-contour lures with altered pitch intervals, and new-contour lures.(More)
Seven experiments explored the time course of recognition of brief novel melodies. In a continuous-running-memory task, subjects recognized melodic transpositions following delays up to 2.0 min. The delays were either empty or filled with other melodies. Test items included exact transpositions (T), same-contour lures (SC) with altered pitch intervals, and(More)