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The generalized feedback shift register pseudorandom number algorithm has several advantages over all other pseudorandom number generators. These advantages are: (1) it produces multidimensional pseudorandom numbers; (2) it has an arbitrarily long period independent of the word size of the computer on which it is implemented; (3) it is faster than other(More)
A monoenergetic response correction is described which, along with adequate filtration, may be used to remove the spectral shift artifact encountered in three-dimensional reconstruction from x rays. Reconstructions were carried out by means of a convolution algorithm for simulated data using this method. These are compared with reconstructions obtained(More)
The image displayed in computed tomography is a scaled representation of attenuation coefficients within the patient's body. A number of authors have presented methods by which additional information (such as electron density, effective atomic number, and extrapolated attenuation coefficients for therapy applications) can be extracted from CT scans carried(More)
An algorithm and coding technique is presented for quick evaluation of the Lehmer pseudo-random number generator modulo 2 ** 31 - 1, a prime Mersenne number which produces 2 ** 31 - 2 numbers, on a <italic>p</italic>-bit (greater than 31) computer. The computation method is extendible to limited problems in modular arithmetic. Prime factorization for 2 **(More)
The effective energy of a polychromatic beam for a Computed Tomography (CT) scanner can be measured directly only with difficulty. However, a linear relationship exists between the measured CT numbers and corresponding attenuation coefficients of known materials at the effective energy of the x-ray beam. The effective energy can then be determined by(More)
A model for calculating mammographic spectra independent of measured data and fitting parameters is presented. This model is based on first principles. Spectra were calculated using various target and filter combinations such as molybdenum/molybdenum, molybdenum/rhodium, rhodium/rhodium, and tungsten/aluminum. Once the spectra were calculated, attenuation(More)
A method is presented by whichcomputed tomography scans carried out at a number of energies may be utilized to obtain cross-sectional images of density and atomic number in addition to the conventional array of linear attenuation coefficients. This type of analysis has been carried out for various substances of biological relevance. Computer simulated(More)