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BACKGROUND Dabrafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, has clinical activity with a manageable safety profile in studies of phase 1 and 2 in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutated metastatic melanoma. We studied the efficacy of dabrafenib in patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutated metastatic melanoma. METHODS We enrolled patients in this open-label phase 3 trial(More)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with a t(15;17) translocation that creates the promyelocyte-retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RAR alpha) fusion gene. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that PML is a part of a novel macromolecular organelle (including at least three other nuclear proteins) referred to as PML oncogenic domains (PODs). In APL(More)
Arsenic trioxide has shown substantial efficacy in treating both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). As a single agent, it induces complete remissions, causing few adverse effects and only minimal myelosuppression. These successes have prompted investigations to elucidate the mechanisms of action underlying these(More)
Arsenic trioxide induces c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), where it has major clinical activity, but whether JNK is necessary to induce apoptosis is unknown. To clarify this necessity, we established 2 arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-resistant subclones of the APL cell line, NB4. Both resistant lines(More)
BACKGROUND Retinoids, which are derivatives of vitamin A, induce differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells in vitro and in patients. However, APL cells develop resistance to retinoic acid treatment. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) can induce clinical remission in patients with APL, including those who have relapsed after retinoic acid treatment,(More)
Non-liganded retinoic acid receptors (RARs) repress transcription of target genes by recruiting the histone deacetylase complex through a class of silencing mediators termed SMRT or N-CoR. Mutant forms of RARalpha, created by chromosomal translocations with either the PML (for promyelocytic leukaemia) or the PLZF (for promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger)(More)
A unique mRNA produced in leukemic cells from a t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patient encodes a fusion protein between the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and a myeloid gene product called PML. PML contains a cysteine-rich region present in a new family of apparent DNA-binding proteins that includes a regulator of the interleukin-2(More)
Cellular mechanisms conferring neuroprotection in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) remain incompletely understood. Erythropoietin (Epo) and the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) are expressed in neural tissues and protect against oxidative and other stressors in various models of brain injury and disease. Our objective in this study was to(More)
Although all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces complete remission in a high proportion of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), all groups have described clinical relapses despite continued RA treatment. This finding suggests that resistance to the cytodifferentiating effects of the retinoid had been acquired. To investigate potential mechanisms(More)
Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein secreted by the kidney in response to hypoxia that stimulates erythropoiesis through interaction with cell surface Epo receptors. Pre-treatment with Epo has been shown to protect neurons in models of ischemic injury. The mechanism responsible for this neuroprotection and the effects of Epo on astroglial and other(More)