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Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and(More)
One of the major impediments to the integration of lentic ecosystems into global environmental analyses has been fragmentary data on the extent and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. We use new data sources, enhanced spatial resolution, and new analytical approaches to provide new estimates of the global abundance of surface-water bodies.(More)
Anthropogenic addition of bioavailable nitrogen to the biosphere is increasing and terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated, causing more bioavailable nitrogen to enter groundwater and surface waters. Large-scale nitrogen budgets show that an average of about 20-25 per cent of the nitrogen added to the biosphere is exported from(More)
A comparative (15)N-tracer study of nitrogen dynamics in headwater streams from biomes throughout North America demonstrates that streams exert control over nutrient exports to rivers, lakes, and estuaries. The most rapid uptake and transformation of inorganic nitrogen occurred in the smallest streams. Ammonium entering these streams was removed from the(More)
Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loading to river networks is a potentially important source of N(2)O via microbial denitrification that converts N to N(2)O and dinitrogen (N(2)). The fraction of denitrified N that escapes as N(2)O rather than(More)
Yields of total fixed nitrogen and nitrogen fractions are summarized for thirty-one watersheds in which anthropogenic disturbance of the nitrogen cycle, either through land use or atmospheric deposition, is negligible or slight. These yields are taken as representative of background conditions over a broad range of watershed areas, elevations, and(More)
SUMMARY 1. We studied whole-ecosystem metabolism in eight streams from several biomes in North America to identify controls on the rate of stream metabolism over a large geographic range. The streams studied had climates ranging from tropical to cool-temperate and from humid to arid and were all relatively uninfluenced by human disturbances. 2. Rates of(More)
We measured denitrification rates using a field 15 N–NO { 3 tracer-addition approach in a large, cross-site study of nitrate uptake in reference, agricultural, and suburban–urban streams. We measured denitrification rates in 49 of 72 streams studied. Uptake length due to denitrification (S Wden) ranged from 89 m to 184 km (median of 9050 m) and there were(More)
We measured uptake length of 15 NO { 3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO { 3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban–urban, and(More)
Stoichiometric analyses can be used to investigate the linkages between N and C cycles and how these linkages influence biogeochemistry at many scales, from components of individual ecosystems up to the biosphere. N-specific NH4+ uptake rates were measured in eight streams using short-term 15N tracer additions, and C to N ratios (C:N) were determined from(More)