W. H. Kersting

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Step voltage regulators are the workhorse of distribution feeders for maintaining the voltage at every customer's meter to be within the ANSI standards. A step voltage regulator can be viewed as a tap-changing autotransformer. This paper will apply a model of the step voltage regulator. The IEEE 13 Node Test Feeders will be used to demonstrate how the(More)
This article has answered many of the questions that occur when a distribution engineer starts a power-flow study. It is important that the engineer understands why the study is important and what can be learned about the system from the studies. By means of an example system, some of the operating conditions that can be determined from the study are(More)
Distribution engineers have treated the standard ldquosingle-phaserdquo distribution transformer connection as single phase because, from the primary side of the transformer, these connections are single phase and, in the case of standard rural distribution, single phase line to ground. However, with the advent of detailed circuit modeling, we are beginning(More)
With the exponential growth in computer hardware power and computer software functionality, it is now possible to include distribution transformers and secondary systems in our engineering models. With the ever growing demands and expectations associated with “Smart Grid,” it is further becoming a requirement that we model secondary. The(More)
It is well known that a three-phase induction motor will continue to operate when a disturbance of some sort causes the voltages supplied to the motor to become single phased. Single phasing can occur as a result of a fuse blowing or a protective device opening on one phase of the motor. Other possibilities include feeder or step-down transformer fuses(More)
Distribution systems are typically composed of radial feeders. Radial means that there is only one path of current flow to each of the loads on the feeder. There are times when it becomes necessary to form a loop in a feeder by closing switches. This may be because of an outage or a new load that will cause the radial current to exceed the conductor current(More)
A common load on a distribution feeder consists of a combination single-phase lighting load and a three-phase load such as an induction motor. This combination load can be served by a wye-delta transformer bank. The question is whether the wye connection should be directly connected to ground, connected to ground through a grounding resistor or left(More)
It is fairly common in a distribution system to find instances where distribution lines are "physically" parallel. The parallel combination may have both distribution lines constructed on the same pole or the two lines may run in parallel on separate poles but on the same right of way. For example, two different feeders leaving a substation may share a(More)
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